More information: Emasculation: gloves-off strategy enhances eunuch spider endurance, Biology Letters, Published online before print June 13, 2012, doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.0285AbstractMales of sexually cannibalistic spiders commonly mutilate parts of their paired genitals (palps) during copulation, which may result in complete emasculation or the ‘eunuch phenomenon’. In an orb-web nephilid spider, Nephilengys malabarensis, about 75 per cent of males fall victim to sexual cannibalism, and the surviving males become half-eunuchs (one palp emasculated) or full-eunuchs (both palps emasculated). While it has been shown that surviving eunuchs are better fighters compared with intact males when guarding the females with which they have mated, mechanisms behind eunuchs’ superior fighting abilities are unknown. The previously proposed ‘gloves-off’ hypothesis, attributing eunuchs’ enhanced locomotor endurance to the reduction in total body weight caused by genital mutilation, is plausible but has remained untested. Here, we tested the gloves-off hypothesis in N. malabarensis by comparing the time until exhaustion (i.e. endurance) of intact males with half- and full-eunuchs created experimentally. We found that by reducing body weight up to 4 per cent in half-eunuchs and 9 per cent in full-eunuchs through emasculation, endurance increases significantly in half-eunuchs (32%) and particularly strongly in full-eunuchs (80%). Our results corroborate the gloves-off hypothesis and further point towards the adaptive significance of male emasculation. Previously, Daiqin Li and colleagues at the National University of Singapore found that the male orb web spider loses its sex organ, called a palp, due to it breaking off during sex because it allowed the male to continue pumping in sperm even as the male was either eaten by the female or fled the scene. Now new research by the same team has found that for those males that escape the female after mating, the loss of the heavy palp affords the survivors more stamina in warding off other would be suitors, thus helping to ensure that the original male produces offspring. The team has published a paper on their findings in the journal Biology Letters. Sex for male orb web spiders is truly a risky business. The researchers found that only about twenty five percent of them survive the encounter as the females are bigger and stronger and eat the males whenever they get the chance. Because of this, the researchers say, the male has evolved to where it allows its palp to break off during the tryst so that he might better escape being eaten, while still finishing the job he set out to do, namely, copulate to produce progeny. After he’s dead or gone, his palp continues to push his sperm into the female, thus increasing his chances of producing offspring. But the researchers have now found that those that do survive make much better guards than they would were their palps still attached due to increased stamina. This is because the palps are pretty big and heavy compared to the rest of the spider’s anatomy.To find out just how much more stamina the spiders have without their palps, the researchers removed them manually from several volunteers and then subjected them to endurance testing. In so doing, they found that spiders with one palp removed (which reduced its body weight by four percent) had 32% more endurance than did spiders that retained both. Even more remarkably, when both palps were removed, reducing its body weight by nine percent, the spiders showed an increase in endurance of up to 80%.This is important for the spiders because once they’ve mated, their sole reason for living is warding off other suitors seeking to replace the original mater’s sperm with some of their own. With their lowered weight, those spiders that have already mated not only have more endurance but are lighter on their feet so to speak, giving them a huge advantage over other males still carrying around their cumbersome palps. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Biology Letters Citation: Orb web spiders found to be better guards after sex (2012, June 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-06-orb-web-spiders-sex.html © 2012 Phys.Org Nephilengys malabarensis. Image (c) Daiqin Li/University of Singapore Explore further Male spiders of one species lose their genitals after sex to increase sperm count in females
New study finds ‘geologic clock’ that helps determine Moon’s age (Phys.org) —A combined team of researchers from Germany, Switzerland and the U.S. has found evidence of faster than thought core formation of planetesimals in our solar system. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes how they came up with a new approach to using tungsten isotope dating in a way that overcame the problem of cosmic rays affecting accuracy. Tim Elliot offers a Perspective piece in the same issue delving further into the work by the team and explains how the new findings are likely to lead to better dating for planetary development in general. Citation: Researchers find evidence of speedy core formation in solar system planetesimals (2014, June 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-06-evidence-speedy-core-formation-solar.html Journal information: Science © 2014 Phys.org Planetary core formation. Credit: Speed metal, Science 6 June 2014. Scientists believe approximately 4.6 billion years ago, our solar system was little more than a star surrounded by a molecular cloud. That cloud eventually coalesced into a proto-planetary disk which eventually coalesced further into planetesimals. Planets and moons and other bodies in the solar system came about as a result. But, one thing that has puzzled space scientists was the rate at which the cores of the planetesimals formed, or put another way, how soon after the formation of solar system, did the cores start to form? To come up with a good approximation, the researchers looked to existing iron meteorites—they are believed to been the creative force behind core formation.To determine the age of five existing iron meteorites, the researchers used tungsten radioactive isotope dating, an approach used before. Such prior efforts were hobbled in their accuracy, however, by the impact of cosmic rays over time. To get around that problem, the researchers used platinum isotope compositions. Doing so allowed the researchers to calculate that core formation of early planetesimals likely began as early as 100,000 years to 300,000 years after the formation of the solar system.These findings help explain why the materials that made up the bodies currently in our solar system weren’t blown away by the sun—previous estimates suggested core formation took up to twenty million years, enough time to push such materials beyond our stars’ gravitational pull. With such a short formation time, however, the cores of the developing planetesimals would have formed before they were pushed too far out, allowing them to be captured by the tug of the sun’s gravity. More information: Protracted core formation and rapid accretion of protoplanets, Science 6 June 2014: Vol. 344 no. 6188 pp. 1150-1154 DOI: 10.1126/science.1251766ABSTRACTUnderstanding core formation in meteorite parent bodies is critical for constraining the fundamental processes of protoplanet accretion and differentiation within the solar protoplanetary disk. We report variations of 5 to 20 parts per million in 182W, resulting from the decay of now-extinct 182Hf, among five magmatic iron meteorite groups. These 182W variations indicate that core formation occurred over an interval of ~1 million years and may have involved an early segregation of Fe-FeS and a later segregation of Fe melts. Despite this protracted interval of core formation, the iron meteorite parent bodies probably accreted concurrently ~0.1 to 0.3 million years after the formation of Ca-Al–rich inclusions. Variations in volatile contents among these bodies, therefore, did not result from accretion at different times from an incompletely condensed solar nebula but must reflect local processes within the nebula. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further
(Phys.org)—Two teams of researchers both working in the U.S. have announced new breakthroughs in better understanding how immunological memory works. Both teams have published their findings in the journal Nature. The first team, made up of members from several academic institutions across the country, describe their study of part of the process by which bacteria fend off secondary viral attacks. The second team, with Rockefeller University, describes a system they devised for in vitro study of immunological memory at the bacterial level. Ido Yosef and Udi Qimron with Tel Aviv University offer a News and Views piece on the work done by the two teams in the same journal issue. Escherichia coli. Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH More information: Paper 1: Integrase-mediated spacer acquisition during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity, Nature (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nature14237Paper 2: Cas9 specifies functional viral targets during CRISPR–Cas adaptation, Nature (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nature14245News and Views: Microbiology: How bacteria get spacers from invaders, Nature (2015) DOI: 10.1038/nature14204 Bacterial immune system has a better memory than expected Explore further Citation: Research efforts yielding major advances in understanding immunological memory (2015, February 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-02-efforts-yielding-major-advances-immunological.html In humans and many other animals, part of the work of immunity involves storing information about previous viral or bacterial attacks so those of the same type can be more easily thwarted in the future. Until very recently, scientists believed this “memory” type of immunity was unique to vertebrates. Over the past few years, researchers have found this assumption to be false—they have found, as one example, that bacteria too have immunological memory that helps them fight off viral infections.To remember viral infections, bacteria grab short snippets of its DNA during an attack—the snippets are called protospacers and make their way into bacterium DNA. Once entrenched they are called clustered regularly interspaced short pallindronic repeats (CRISPRs)—as a group they are referred to as spacers. The researchers with the first effort sought to uncover how it is that spacers are “chosen” by an individual bacterium in such a way as to prevent damage to its own sequences as pieces are cleaved to allow for retention. They found that a protein called Cas9 drives the selection process.To learn more about how the immune system works, in all species, studies are done both in vitro and in vivo. Most work done to date at the bacterial level has been conducted in vivo. The team at RU has developed a system whereby future research using an in vitro approach can be used—it is based on E. coli memorizing proteins.Learning more about how the immune system works in simple organisms allows researchers to uncover some of the basic properties involved, which hopefully can be applicable to those in larger organisms, such as human beings. Journal information: Nature This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2015 Phys.org
Unbinned transit light curves for HATS-43. Credit: Brahm et al., 2017. HATSouth is a network of six astrograph telescope systems located in South America, Africa, and Australia. These telescopes are designed to detect transiting extrasolar planets in orbit around relatively bright stars visible from the Southern hemisphere. Since its launch in 2009, the network has already detected dozens of transiting exoplanets.Now, the list of planets detected by HATSouth has expanded. In a recent paper, a team of researchers led by Rafael Brahm of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile in Santiago presents the discovery of four new planets, HATS-43b, HATS-44b, HATS-45b, and HATS-46b. The planetary nature of transiting signals detected by HATSouth was confirmed by follow-up spectroscopic and photometric observations using various instruments, including the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network at the Cerro Tololo International Observatory (CTIO) in Chile.This extensive observational campaign that led to the discovery of four new alien worlds was carried out from December 2009 to October 2016.”We have presented the discovery of four new short-period transiting systems from the HATSouth network. The systems were identified as planetary candidates using HATSouth photometric light curves and then confirmed as planetary mass objects by measuring precise radial velocities for the host stars,” the astronomers wrote in the paper.According to the paper, HATS-45b is the largest and most massive exoworld of all the newly discovered exoplanets. It has a radius of about 1.29 Jupiter radii and is 30 percent less massive than our solar system’s biggest planet. It orbits its parent star every 4.19 days.HATS-46b has the longest orbital period and is the least massive of the newly found quartet. It has only 17 percent of the mass of Jupiter, however a radius of approximately 0.9 Jupiter radii. It takes this planet 4.74 days to fully circle its host.HATS-43b and HATS-44b are similar in radius—1.18 and 1.07 Jupiter radii respectively. HATS-43b has a mass of 0.26 Jupiter masses, while HATS-44b is about two times more massive—0.56 Jupiter masses. The shortest orbital period among the four newly identified planets belongs to HATS-44b, which orbits its star in just 2.74 days. When it comes to HATS-43b, it takes it approximately 4.39 days to circle its parent star.In general, the newly found planets have orbital periods shorter than five days and masses in the Neptune to Jupiter mass range, however all of them have radii similar to that of Jupiter.The researchers concluded that their finding is an important addition to the still-growing collection of planetary systems with determined basic parameters.”These four new systems add to the valuable population of extrasolar planets transiting stars with precisely determined masses and radii,” the paper reads. Citation: Four new short-period giant planets discovered (2017, July 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-07-short-period-giant-planets.html Explore further New ‘hot Jupiter’ with short orbital period discovered More information: HATS-43b, HATS-44b, HATS-45b, and HATS-46b: Four Short Period Transiting Giant Planets in the Neptune-Jupiter Mass Range, arXiv:1707.07093 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1707.07093AbstractWe report the discovery of four short period extrasolar planets transiting moderately bright stars from photometric measurements of the HATSouth network coupled to additional spectroscopic and photometric follow-up observations. While the planet masses range from 0.26 to 0.90 MJ, the radii are all approximately a Jupiter radii, resulting in a wide range of bulk densities. The orbital period of the planets range from 2.7d to 4.7d, with HATS-43b having an orbit that appears to be marginally non-circular (e= 0.173±0.089). HATS-44 is notable for a high metallicity ([Fe/H]= 0.320±0.071). The host stars spectral types range from late F to early K, and all of them are moderately bright (13.3 © 2017 Phys.org (Phys.org)—Astronomers have detected four new giant exoplanets as part of the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network-South (HATSouth) exoplanet survey. The newly found alien worlds are about the size of Jupiter, but less massive. They transit moderately bright stars and have short orbital periods. The findings were presented July 22 in a paper published on arXiv.org. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The fair showcases the richness and diversity of the handicrafts, handlooms and the cultural heritage of India. The aim of this event is to recreate a pristine rural ambience for foreign and domestic tourists, tell the patrons of arts and crafts of the skills involved in creative arts, to introduce craft persons directly to the buyers, and to identify, nurture and preserve the languishing crafts of the country. Chhattisgarh is theme state this year. It will showcase its tribal heritage and culture, which is still found well-preserved in the forests of Bastar. The skilled craft persons, talented artistes and master chefs from the state will participate in the mela. Also, an ethnic ambience representing the state’s rural ethos is created on the mela grounds. 18 countries are expected to participate in this fair. Lebanon, the partner nation of the mela this year, will unveil its ancient heritage of creating crafts in style. Lebanon will showcase to the world their identity as a nation, its history, culture, arts, cuisine, customs and traditions; and leave an everlasting memory in the hearts and minds of the people of India who come to Surajkund. To enliven the visitors’ mood, scintillating performances will be presented by international folk artistes from Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Federation (Moscow), Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Georgia and Tajikistan.Vivanta by Taj, Surajkund is also celebrating the event by recreating the highlights of the fair within the property. It features varied activities that would capture the interest of guests across age groups. From wine-tasting and themed evenings to special kids’ activities and menu, there is something for everyone.Also, Pawan Hans is commencing Helicopter Joy Ride during the mela to take visitors on a joy ride flight by Pawan Hans Helicopter and experience the breathtaking beauty through aerial view of Surajkund Mela and surrounding areas. The rate of per ticket is Rs. 2,000/- which can be booked on the spot.
Network18 Media and Investments on Wednesday reported a consolidated net loss of Rs 27.42 crore for the second quarter ended September 30. The company had registered a consolidated net loss of Rs 36.46 crore in the same period a year ago. Network18’s total income from operations for this quarter stood at Rs 795.1 crore. It was Rs 736.12 crore during the same period of the previous fiscal.
Bardhaman(WB): Twenty-five people have been injured in a clash between villagers of Purba Goalpara and Dangapur over morphed pictures of local women doing the rounds on social media, a police officer said today. Twenty-nine people have been arrested till now in connection with the incident that took place yesterday and raids are on in the two villages, Additional Superintendent of Police(Rural), East Bardhaman, Raj Narayan Mukherjee said. The residents of Dangapur village suspected the involvement of Sheikh Rakibul of neighbouring Purba Goalpara village in uploading the morphed pictures of the women on social networking sites on Tuesday. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life Sheikh Rakibul’s brother Sheikh Hijbullah claimed that the matter had been sorted out at a meeting held in Madanghat Police Station on Tuesday. The police, however, said no such meeting had been held at the police station. Yesterday, some people supporting Sheikh Rakibul clashed with villagers at Dangapur and both the groups attacked each other with rods, stones and sharp weapons, a local police officer said. He said 16 of the injured were admitted to the Kalna sub-divisional hospital and the rest were taken to nearby hospitals.
KOLKATA: A truck driver’s dead body was found inside an abandoned truck at Chanditala in Hooghly. The driver was later identified as Keshto Bhagat. His throat was slit using some sharp weapon.According to police sources, the truck was coming from Durgapur loaded with iron materials. The owner of the truck lost contact with Bhagat after 9 pm on Sunday. Despite repeated efforts, Bhagat could not be reached as his phone was found to be switched off. Having no other way, the owner tried to locate the truck as well but failed. On Monday late night, some locals from Panchghora at Chanditala noticed a truck was standing for quite a long time on the Kolkata bound flank of Durgapur Expressway. Being curious some locals went to investigate and after getting near, one noticed blood on the truck. Immediately, Chanditala Police Station was informed. Police later recovered Bhagat’s body from the driver’s cabin. A murder case has been initiated by the police. The sleuths are suspecting that Bhagat might have been killed by some miscreants over robbery. Police are checking the whereabouts of local miscreants. Till Tuesday night no one was arrested.
Pudina (mint leaves) aids in digestion, improves oral health, treats cold and more, say experts.Mint leaves are loaded with anti-oxidants and phytonutrients which provide relief to the stomach muscles and help in digestion. It soothes the stomach instantly and works wonders when it comes to treating tummy troubles. For example, pudina chutney that is served with samosa is not only just to enhance our taste buds but for better digestion of the junk food. The herb is a naturally soothing substance, so it can alleviate the inflammation and temperature rise that is often associated with headaches and migraines.Improving the health of a person’s mouth is a well-known benefit of mint. Since it has germicidal qualities and quickly freshens breath, it adds to oral health by inhibiting harmful bacterial growth inside the mouth and by cleaning the tongue and teeth.The anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties work wonders for acne-prone skin. Also, when applied topically, mint has the effect of calming and cooling the skin affected by insect bites, a rash or other reactions.Pudina is one of those herbs which not only has general benefits but also has therapeutic values. If people have any kind of digestion problem like gas formation, indigestion, vomiting and diarrhoea, pudina can be used effectively in different formats.
Darjeeling: A Class-IX student of Narayana School in Jatiakhali, Siliguri, fell from the second floor out of an open window and died. Another student, who also fell off the window, is admitted to a private hospital with injuries.Prima facie the two boys pushed each other while playing and they fell off the sliding windows on Monday. The deceased Rishab Arya was from Purnia, Bihar. “The grill of the classroom had loosened and had been removed for replacement. The workman was not present as had gone to his sister’s wedding,” said Santosh Kumar Yadav, deputy general manager of the school. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataThe school remained closed on Tuesday and will remain closed on Wednesday also for maintainance work stated Yadav. The body of the deceased student was handed over to his father on Thursday. “We have nothing to say. Rishab had plans to go for higher studies to Delhi. Everything has ended,” stated Arun Kumar, his father. The other student Ritwick Kumar Singh is a day scholar. He suffered multiple fractures. These two students were near the window which had the open slide. They were rushed to a private nursing home. “We feel that there has been a sheer lapse on the part of the authorities. How can a student fall out of a window during school hours? They should have a safety and security monitoring system in place,” stated Sandipan Bhattacharya, president, Guardian’s Forum of North Bengal.
Following a vegan diet has gained popularity in the country as people have now decided follow it for ethical reasons. Begin today, but keep patience as the transition will take some time and find tasty substitutes, say experts. Nutrionists and Health experts have shared a few essentials tips to keep in mind for vegan beginners. Begin today, but keep patience; it will not happen overnight. This transition will take some time. But being vegan doesn’t mean abandoning your taste buds. With a little help from the internet, local resources, and other vegans, you can find tasty substitutes for all your old favourites. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfGoing vegan is a lifestyle, not just about eating plant-based foods. You will find that you can support yourself with personal care products and clothes and homes which are a lot more conducive for your health because they are natural and cruelty-free. Keep your vitamins and minerals in check. Eat more plant-based food, more vegetables and fruits, whole foods and grains. Focus on iron, calcium, omegas and vitamin D and vitamin B12. Consult a plant-based doctor, health coach or nutritionist to ensure you take care of your nutrition needs like B12, among others. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveConsult with a vegan nutritionist/dietician if you want to start taking supplements. As far as protein is concerned, you get enough protein from the regular healthy vegan food, but if bodybuilding is your passion and you want extra protein in powder form, then switch to plant-based protein powder. Read labels before you shop at grocery stores. It’s important to eat fresh , organic and clean food, closest to what nature has provided without chemicals, preservatives, and stabilisers. Vegan food is full of delectable and refreshing varieties, the more you will explore, the more you will love it. However, if you are allergic to any particular vegetable or fruit, then avoid it and ask your dietician for a better alternative.
Bharatanatyam dancer and choreographer Priya Venkataraman, who took her first steps in dance when she was seven, has asked her adult students to take up Bharatanatyam as a second innings in life. “Once a dancer, always a dancer! One does not need to rekindle the flame, because the passion never dies,” Venkataraman said. “I have many adult students who have taken sound training under various gurus in their childhood and are now in Gurugram because of professional or personal reasons. They come to me to keep their training and interest in the art alive,” Venkataraman further added. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfA disciple of 2013 Padma Bhushan recipient Saroja Vaidyanathan, the danseuse developed a passion for classical dance and was fascinated with “costume, make-up and elaborate jewellery” that completes a Bharatanatyam performance. She has performed for then US President Barrack Obama during his visit to India in 2010 and in a programme for the Royal couple of Bhutan in 2011. When asked what changes she has seen over 25 years of her choreography and training as a classical dance educator herself, she said, “I see a definite shift from the solo to a group format in the classical dance arena. Indian classical dance evolved primarily as a solo form. More recently, however, I notice the stage available for solo platforms are dwindling and group choreography is becoming more popular.” Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive”Speaking for Bharatanatyam in particular, the duration of the performance is becoming much shorter too. From about 90 minutes to 30 minutes on average. As a result, most of the time, faster pieces are usually chosen to exhibit technical virtuosity and one finds slower ‘abhinaya’ pieces like ‘padams’ and ‘javalis’ not finding a place in the current scenario,” she explained. Venkataraman and her 50 students will be presenting ‘Dance Kaleidoscope’ at a private school in Gurugram on July 27. It is a recital that features traditional dance numbers from the Bharatanatyam repertoire’ like “Allarippu, Jathiswaram, Varnam, Padam and Keertanam”.
Kolkata: A man allegedly committed suicide by jumping in front of a Dum Dum-bound Metro at Rabindra Sarobar station in Kolkata on Saturday. The deceased has been identified as Prakash Shaw (40). He was declared brought dead at MR Bangur hospital.The incident took place at 12.09 pm, following which Metro services were suspended till 12.57 pm. A case has been lodged at Charu Market police station. “A man committed suicide in the UP line at Rabindra Sarobar station at 12.09 pm today. Truncated services were operated from Maidan to Noapara both UP and DN and also from Mahanayak Uttam Kumar to Kavi Subhash both UP and DN,” said Metro CPRO Indrani Banerjee. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata Recently, Kolkata Metro had been in the news for all the wrong reasons. Just about two to three days ago, a girl had slammed Kolkata Metro claiming that the train had started moving despite her shoulder being stuck outside the door. However, the incident has been denied by the Metro authorities. On July 13, Sajal Kanjilal, a resident of Kasba area of Kolkata was killed while trying to board a Kavi Subhash-bound Metro from the Park Street station. His hand had got stuck between the doors and the Metro started moving. Kolkata Metro, which is operated by Ministry of Railways, faced massive criticism from the ruling TMC government, which claimed such incidents were a fallout of poor maintenance. (With inputs from Indian Express)
When the Allies raised their flags in Berlin, and when the German Instrument of Surrender was signed on the eve of May 8, 1945, one thing was clear to Nazi officers: Europe was no longer a safe refuge for them. Plus, the heart and the brain of the Third Reich was gone: the Führer, cornered, had taken his own life. But that didn’t mean that the entire network they had garnered had collapsed. Nazi admirers in fact still thrived. Spain was under a fascist-friendly rule. Plundered gold and other valuables were still secreted in Switzerland. There was a window of time to escape justice, flee the continent, and adopt new identities.Across the ocean, Argentina, under President Juan Domingo Perón, was more than ready to welcome members of the Nazi hierarchy with open arms. Perón, an avid admirer of the fascist ideology, helped numerous former SS officers to flee with the support of his own diplomats and intelligence agents deployed in Europe. He actively aided their passage from Italy and Spain to Buenos Aires.President Perón in 1946, during his inaugural parade.Perón had his own interests with such a generous offer, though his vision for the future did not come to fruition. He was confident a new world order was to follow, in which the Nazis would help Argentina dominate the globe, hopefully becoming more powerful than the U.S.A. or the Soviet Union.A cover page of “Crítica” sharing the news of a diplomatic break of Argentina with Berlin and Tokyo, 1944.Over the years Argentina grew unenthusiastic about keeping Nazis within its borders, especially after learning of the unimaginable extent of the Holocaust. Perón lost power in 1955. Subsequently, some of the war criminals quietly moved to other South American countries. Others remained in Argentina — including Adolf Eichmann, who had arrived in Buenos Aires in 1950.But without Perón, his bolt hole was no longer safe. The most wanted man was abducted by Israeli agents in Bueno Aires.The Red Cross identity document Adolf Eichmann used to enter Argentina under the fake name Ricardo Klement in 1950, issued by the Italian delegation of the Red Cross of Geneva.After the war, Eichmann first sought shelter in Austria. He was allegedly helped by the Vatican to falsify identity papers for his escape.Under the false name of Ricardo Klement, the former Nazi went unnoticed in Buenos Aires. He was able to get a coded message to his wife who came with their children to live in a middle-class suburb of the city.However, the world never forgot that he was a major orchestrator of the Holocaust. 10 Surviving Buildings Built By The Nazis During Their Time In PowerEichmann was eventually traced and captured by Mossad agents and brought to justice in Israel. His life was ended on May 31, 1962; it was the only death penalty ruled by the court of Israel in its history.Adolf Eichmann photographed during his trial in Jerusalem, Israel, 1961.If Adolf Eichmann was the “most wanted” Nazi, Josef Mengele perhaps scored second on the list. He was remembered for his cold-blooded experiments and torture on children, pregnant women, and disabled people who were detained in Auschwitz, which earned him the title Angel of Death. He also made it to Argentina and was daring enough to use his real name.For a while, his life was peaceful in the Argentine capital. Once the news that his compatriot Eichmann was captured reached him, Mengele sought refuge in Brazil. He died from a stroke in 1970. Authorities took six years to authenticate his identity as Mengele used a bogus identity once he came to Brazil.The three-judge panel trying Eichmann’s case consisted of Justice Moshe Landau, Dr.Benjamin Halevy, and Dr. Yitzhak Raveh.Other figures like Italian Erich Priebke and Croatian Dinko Šakić confessed some of their crimes in television interviews many years later. Priebke was noted for a 1944 massacre of over 300 Italian civilians, close to Rome. Another fugitive living in Argentina, he gave an interview for ABC News in 1994. When the piece aired on television, it resulted in Priebke’s extradition to Italy.Šakić, who was Commander of Jasenovac camp, run by the Ustashe (the Croatian pro-Nazi party), was rather forgotten by 1998. That year, he inadvertently set himself up during a TV interview that grabbed attention after he provided statements of his deeds during World War II. It eventually led to his deportation and trail in Croatia.Josef Mengele in 1956. Photo taken by a police photographer in Buenos Aires for Mengele’s Argentine identification document.More infamous Nazis who were caught included Franz Stangl and Josef Schwammberger. The first of them was convicted for the murder of 900,000 people in concentration camps. He was traced in Brazil. Schwammberger, a mass execution officer, was caught by Argentine officials after West Germany called for his extradition in the 1970s.Read another story from us: The Georgian Legion of the German Army stationed on the German-occupied Dutch island of Texel revolted against Nazi Germany.Justice didn’t prevail for everyone, however. There were many more former Nazis, probably hundreds more who just resumed their quiet cautious lives in the lands of South America.
Secret passageways and rooms are wonderful things. They can be used to move important people away from the public gaze, as a place to hide or means of reaching safety, to store important treasures, and to allow servants to move about the house without being seen by guests. There are hundreds of buildings in the world that employ secret tunnels and rooms. Let’s look at a few of them.The ColosseumFront view of the Coliseum of Rome at night, crowned by the Milky WayThe Flavian Amphitheatre, also known as the Colosseum, in Rome, Italy has one of the largest complexes of tunnels ever built. During performances, the underground chambers, or hypogeum – derived from the ancient Greek “hupogeios” meaning underground – would have been a hive of activity.Not only a space for gladiators to wait for their turn in the arena, but everything needed to create the entertainment spectacles held at the Colosseum were kept under the floor.The Colosseum arena, showing the walls of the hypogeum. Photo by Jean-Pol GRANDMONT CC BY-SA 3.0Among the scenery, people, drainage channels (the arena was on occasion flooded for “real” mock-sea battles), and huge pieces of machinery, wild animals were kept down below in cages.The animals would be moved to a layer just below the arena level by means of a man-powered elevator. Slaves were employed to turn a complex system of capstans – cross-shaped, vertical winches – which hoisted the cage to a ramp, from where the hungry animal’s only exit was to the arena floor.View of the interior of the Colosseum by C. W. Eckersberg, 1815Scenery was lifted to the stage in a similar fashion, creating the illusion it had just suddenly appeared. Heinz-Jürgen Beste of the German Archaeological Institute in Rome has been working under the Colosseum for over 14 years.He told Smithsonian that when he first started exploring the structures, “I understood why this site had never been properly analyzed before then.The beautiful Colosseum in Rome, ItalyIts complexity was downright horrifying.” To give an idea of the scale, Beste concluded that “the hypogeum contained 60 capstans, each two stories tall and turned by four men per level.”The Vatican in RomeVatican City, St. Peter’s Basilica at sunset from Via della ConciliazioneThe Vatican in Rome, the residence of the Pope, has a hollow wall that was built in 1277. Behind the wall is a tunnel running from the papal apartments to the tomb of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, the Castel Sant Angelo, which was turned into a fortress in the Middle Ages.Many Popes used the passage to escape to safety, and in 1527, it probably saved the life of Pope Clement VII while Rome was sacked. According to ABC News, there is also a secret bathroom in the papal apartments.The Necropolis under St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican. Photo by Mogadir CC BY 3.0In his book A Journey Through the Historic Underbelly of Europe, Tony Perrottet writes that the bathroom, known as the Stufetta della Bibbiena, is decorated with erotic frescos by Italian master Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (Raphael).The room was painted over and later restored but Vatican officials denied its existence until some dark photos taken in the 1930s emerged. Perrottet managed to wangle a brief visit to the hidden room but was not permitted to take photos.Mausoleums in the Vatican Necropolis with temporal classification of buildings. Photo by Mogadir CC BY 3.0He made a few quick drawings of some of the subjects including a nude Venus combing her hair by a river with a visibly excited Pan watching from behind a bush.Corrie ten Boom of HaarlemTen Boom Museum on Barteljorisstraat in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Photo by Jane023 CC BY-SA 3.0Corrie ten Boom of Haarlem in the Netherlands and her family became involved in the Dutch underground resistance during the years of the Holocaust. The family were watchmakers and lived in apartments above their store.In the 1940s they had a secret room built behind a false wall inside Corrie’s bedroom at her request. This room was part of the network of safe-houses used to hide hundreds of Jewish people on their way out of Germany for several years, until they were betrayed by a fellow Dutch citizen and arrested in 1944.View of Ten Boom Museum and Barteljoristraat from the alleyway called Schoutensteeg. Photo by Jane023 CC BY-SA 3.0The Jews hiding in the secret room were not found and later escaped. Although most of her family died in concentration camps, Corrie was released from the vicious Ravensbrück camp, narrowly missing the gas chamber, and set up a safe house for the mentally ill who were usually executed by the Nazis.After the war she established a rehabilitation center in Bloemendaal in North Holland province for concentration camp survivors. In 1971, she wrote The Hiding Place and became a public speaker on the horrors of the Holocaust. Corrie died in 1983 in the United States at the age of 91. The home is now open to the public and an excellent virtual tour can be seen at tenboom.com showing the neighborhood, the house, and the secret room.Tunnel from the basement of the White HouseThe White House at nightDuring World War II, when Franklin Delano Roosevelt was President of the United States, a tunnel from the basement of the White House that leads to the National Treasury was adapted to lead to a secret bomb shelter built to protect the President.When Roosevelt saw the crudely put together room, he refused to ever come back. Theoretically, the tunnel and secret room could still be used in an emergency, but a better bomb shelter was built in the 1940s under the present site of the East Wing.Vasari CorridorVasari Corridor from Palazzo Vecchio to Uffizi. Photo by Freepenguin CC BY-SA 3.0In 1564, architect, painter, and author Giorgio Vasari built the Vasari Corridor to link the Pitti Palace and the offices of Francesco I de’ Medici, second Grand Duke of Tuscany, in Florence, Italy.The corridor, about a half mile in length, is an enclosed walkway with arched windows and rich wooden floors. It is decorated with Cardinal Leopoldo de’ Medici’s collection of over a thousand of some of the finest works of art of the 17th and 18th centuries by Bernini, Peter Paul Rubens, Delacroix and others.Inside view of the Vasari Corridor from the Uffizi Gallery toward Palazzo Pitti. Photo by Diomidis Spinellis CC BY-SA 4.0The corridor was only for the use of the Medici family, who dominated Florence for about 300 years as merchants, bankers, and politicians. Pope Leo X, a patron of Michelangelo, and Pope Clement VII were both from the Medici family.The Vasari Corridor allowed the family and their guests to cross the busy streets of Florence without having to deal with the crowds and the dirty roads.Lorenzo de’ MediciIt was opened to private tours in 1973, but stopped allowing visitors in 2016 following inspections by the Fire Department. The Vasari Corridor is currently undergoing renovations and is expected to reopen in 2021.The Statue of LibertyLow angle view of the Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island, New York City, NY, USAThe Statue of Liberty, with the face of the sculptor’s mother, has looked out over New York Harbor since 1886 when she was presented as a gift from the people of France.The 305-foot hollow, copper statue was transported from France on the French frigate Isere in 350 pieces, and took four months to reassemble.Unpacking of the face of the Statue of Liberty, which was delivered on June 17, 1885In 1933, Lady Liberty was put into the care of the National Park Service. Originally, there was a 40-foot ladder up her arm and into the torch, from where the bravest visitors could enjoy incredible views of the city.In 1916, Europe was embroiled in World War I and the Germans, who were aware that the United States was aiding Great Britain and France prior to their entrance into the war, bombed a munitions depot on a pier connecting Black Tom Island to Jersey City.The spiral staircase inside the Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, NYCThe explosion killed several people, with hundreds wounded, and according to AM New York, Liberty’s arm and torch were damaged and access was closed.In 1982, an $87 million restoration was started which corrected the damage and replaced the torch, but visitor access was limited to the crown, which is reached by a 377-step staircase.Liberty Statue, work in progressNational Park workers still climb the ladder to perform maintenance on the new torch, which was gilded with 24 karat gold leaf, following the original plans of the statue’s sculptor, Frederic Auguste Bartholdi.These are just a few places that employ hidden rooms and secret tunnels. Many structures around the world, especially castles, Egyptian and Mayan pyramids, and historic buildings and ruins made use of the secrecy and protection these places offered and some may have yet to be found.Church of EnglandQueen Elizabeth I of England by an Unknown Artist, 16th centuryIn England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the Church of England, established by her father King Henry VIII, turned the country into a Protestant kingdom.Before this, Catholicism was the main practiced religion, but, in the turbulent times of changing the religion of the nation, Catholics were still large in number.Sketch showing the concealed entrance to a priest hole at Partingdale House in EnglandThreatened with death for holding public church services, Catholic priests roamed the countryside, performing secret ceremonies in private homes or hidden chapels. When the Queen caught wind of such practices, she sent out soldiers to capture the priests.Read another story from us: A Secret Knights Templar Tunnel that Remained Hidden for 700 YearsThis led to secret cubby-holes, which became known as priest holes, to be built into the homes of loyal Catholics. While many priests survived because of the small secret rooms, some died by suffocation while waiting for the Queen’s men to leave. Web Urbanist tells us that during the English Civil War, King Charles II used these priest holes to make his way from London to safety.
LeBron and the Cavs won their 12th straight in Chicago on Monday night, and it wasn’t all love for the King in the house that Jordan built.While LeBron was cooling at the end of the bench during garbage time of the 113-91 Cleveland blowout, some idiot fan with good seats decided to show off for his girlfriend by lobbing some insults at James. The two went back and forth, but LeBron destroyed the guy when he pointed out that his girlfriend was filming him on the bench.“I hope that ain’t your girl next to you, because she’s filming me. Bum.”This clown had this coming. Have fun watching the Bulls the rest of the year. The audio isn’t great and there’s a lot of cross-talk, but James comment comes near the end.LeBron to #Bulls fan heckling him: “I hope that ain’t your girl next to you because she’s filming me. Bum.” ? pic.twitter.com/lC897O7yN1— FootBasket.com (@FootBasketcom) December 7, 2017H/T BroBible
Ian Happ says “WELCOME TO 2018!” pic.twitter.com/A5Dcb4jVRR— Adam Lichtenstein (@ABLichtenstein) March 29, 2018 Cubs centerfielder Ian Happ got the 2018 season started in a hurry when he launched a bomb on the first pitch of the 2018 season Marlins’ starter José Miguel Ureña. Right before the pitch, Cubs announcer Jim Deshaies mentions that Happ had 7 spring training home runs and could take a home run cut if he got a first pitch fastball. He got a fastball.This wasn’t exactly the start Derek Jeter was looking for in his first year running the fish.Ian Happ kicks off #OpeningDay with a leadoff homerun off Jose Urena on the first pitch of the 2018 season 😳pic.twitter.com/z6CFuLRFdo— Def Pen Sports (@DefPenSports) March 29, 2018
Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global 5 min read Drumming up a fan base on MySpace, LinkedIn, Facebook or Twitter isn’t as simple as sending out friend requests. To find followers, you need to create threads and promote products on social sites. To do so, there are a few unwritten rules of etiquette you should know. Master the etiquette so you can stop sending Super Pokes and start winning over your connected consumers.Be PatientIt’s hard to feel competitive when you’re comparing your 50 friends to someone’s 5,000, but if you take it slow as you build your social content, you’ll fare better in the long run. Don’t request friends blindly.”In most cases, there is no viable mass adding strategy for companies,” says Joel Postman, principal of Socialized, a social media consultancy for businesses. “To start off, follow a few people, get referrals and create a network that’s useful to you as a businessperson.”Also resist the urge to ask all your contacts to join your network. Tom Lewis, vice president of marketing for imaging toolkits and applications provider Atalasoft, imported his Gmail contacts into Facebook and then asked them all to friend him, sending messages to professional contacts as well as people he didn’t know very well. Big mistake. He issued a mea culpa message afterward, calling it a “definite mistake.” A better idea is to announce social networks on your site, in your newsletter, or in an e-mail signature, and let contacts come to you.Be InclusiveJust because you shouldn’t be sending out friend requests to everyone in your address book doesn’t mean you should be shy about connecting with networkers that come to you. Don’t take a chance on alienating potential customers.”So long as it’s not a spam request from a porn site or get-rich-quick scheme, I will friend anyone who appears to be a real person,” Postman says. “For a business, you have to accept every live person because you run the risk of offending a customer.”Be on MessageOnce connected, keep your connections’ sensibilities in mind. One evening, Brooke Webb, marketing and PR director at Vicinity Manufacturing, started posting to Twitter after a failed client dinner and a few cocktails. She says, “I tweeted several messages that compared my clients and their cities to the adventures of Dante in The Inferno. You know, seventh-circle-of-hell references, and so on.”Even worse, her Twitter account posted to her LinkedIn so all her professional contacts could see what she had written. Webb has since learned to keep her Twittering professional, using it for her company’s customer service and encouraging clients to reach out to her directly. She also posts about social media and has some much tamer personal posts.Your online presence is a very visible part of your brand, so make sure what you say and do online reflects your company’s culture. If you’re comfortable joking around or sharing details about your personal life, go for it, but as a general rule, Postman says to ask yourself “How would I behave I weren’t online?”Though there’s a delete button for a social slip-up, you may never be able to completely fix a misguided communiqu?. Last summer, SocialMedian CEO Jason Goldberg Twittered about raising angel investment for his company, possibly running afoul of securities regulations. He tried deleting the Tweet, but in moments, it was captured, published and lambasted on TechCrunch and other blogs.Be TransparentWhen filling out your profile, don’t copy and paste your white paper–a few sentences will do. Show some personality by sharing information under your interests, but if you’re more comfortable keeping things strictly business, relate everything back to your core message. Also, don’t add any Facebook applications your contacts need to add to see–they look unprofessional and can annoy your network. Take charge of your online persona by posting a profile image. If your account is under your name, use a headshot; if your account is your business name, opt for a logo. If you’ve hired a community manager to handle your accounts, give some information on your site about that person, as well. And always include two-way links, from your social site to your website and vice versa, to help people quickly find and vet you.Be TactfulTo get some business out of your social networks, it’s best not to immediately send new friends offers to download an e-book or to sign up for a newsletter. Be more subtle. Work your promotion into your everyday conversations by telling people about upcoming conferences, responding to questions in your field, or pointing out new and relevant blog posts.As a general rule, try to match the way your contacts interact with you. Respond to a wall post with a wall post and a message with a message. Most other communication should be done via more passive Twitter or status updates. Postman says, “What works is being genuine, not being a hype machine.”Be AlertTo improve your brand standing, search for complaints or problems about your business, and respond in a helpful way, without necessarily adding the person as a contact. For example, Comcast has a ComcastCares account on Twitter that responds to complaints and provides customer service right in the platform. By empowering a community manager to listen and respond to complaints, you’re taking a big step toward winning over customers. Register Now » December 3, 2008
2 min read January 18, 2016 This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. Enroll Now for Free WhatsApp has scrapped the 99 cent annual fee that users paid to retain the service after one year of free use in favor of a new monetization model.Starting now, the messaging app “will test tools that allow you to use WhatsApp to communicate with businesses and organizations that you want to hear from,” according to a blog post. “That could mean communicating with your bank about whether a recent transaction was fraudulent, or with an airline about a delayed flight.”This smacks of a similar strategy being forged for Facebook Messenger, which recently allowed shoppers to sign up for updates, receive receipts and shipping information and interact directly with brands via the app. Facebook, which acquired WhatsApp for $22 billion in October 2014, also recently integrated Uber ride-hailing within Messenger.Whatsapp said it would abandon subscription fees because many of its nearly 1 billion users across the globe “don’t have a debit or credit card number.” It will take “several weeks” to remove the fees from all of its different versions, according to the company.Related: Report: Google Is Building a ‘Smart’ Mobile-Messaging App to Rival Facebook MessengerWhile WhatsApp has long vowed to remain ad free (a notion that came under question following the Facebook acquisition) and reiterated its commitment to steering clear of third-party ads and spam in its recent announcement, the company’s latest move could ultimately pave the way for a Facebook-like advertising model.On an earnings call last year, notes Re/code — which was first to report the subscription cancellation — Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg said that the monetization approach to WhatsApp and Messenger would mirror Facebook’s own approach to News Feed ads in 2006 and 2007.Rather than focusing on banner ads, Zuckerberg said, the company built Pages to get as many businesses as possible onto the network, knowing that “the ads and monetization would perform better if there was an organic interaction between people using the product and businesses.”Related: This New Startup Wants to Be Your WhatsApp for Professional Networking Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Now
Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. Register Now » Business intelligence, or BI, is changing the way small to mid-size companies are making decisions, and it is creating significant advantages for those that do it well. If you are an entrepreneur, you know how important information is when it pertains to decisions that involve the future of your business. Data-driven decision-making helps improve potential outcomes by reducing speculation in favor of analysis.Industry experts are all talking about the ways in which data and BI are becoming essential tools for all business owners. Peter Sondergaard of Gartner Research summarized the importance of BI when he said, “Information is the oil of the 21st century, and analytics is the combustion engine.” Research firms like Gartner are not only predicting the importance of BI for decision-making purposes; they also think it can be monetized. A recent report projects that as many as 10 percent of companies will have profitable departments focused on “productizing and commercializing” the data they collect by 2020.Forrester, another research firm, found that enterprise data is an untapped resource for most organizations. It reported that a mere 40 percent of enterprise data is ever used to enhance operations. Organizations that can use that information to improve existing processes will likely see significant improvements in their strategies, and those that learn how to market and sell that data will achieve higher revenues. The following are three major trends business owners need to know to better leverage BI for their organizations.1. Self-service BI for small business.Until recently, big data was inaccessible for smaller organizations. But the rise of platforms that provide self-service BI solutions is allowing access to anyone who wants to evaluate the data that drives their business. Many organizations that leverage internal data collect it from multiple processes or departments, which makes it difficult to aggregate in a way that makes sense for everyone. This is especially challenging for large organizations that have much more data to process. The result is often data-centric blind spots that open the company up to significant risks.Related: Aggregate Data to Grasp the Whole Customer JourneyUday Hegde, CEO of USEReady, a company that works to help business leaders leverage data and analytics, explains how companies are consolidating these functions. “Businesses are shifting toward using application program interfaces (APO) to transfer their data to user-friendly applications. As a result, they can trade clunky dashboards for more useful apps. Converting to an app-centric approach empowers companies to make their data more interactive across multiple connected devices. Self-reliant solutions help businesses make data more actionable.”2. Data for visualization.The good news is data is becoming more and more useful, as there are more companies working to provide quality data visualization that is geared toward being accessible to even the less technical members of the team.Organizations like Tableau, Domo and IBM are all innovating at a rapid pace, aiming to gain market share by helping their customers improve the usefulness of their data. Tableau released its own predictions about where data analytics are headed in the coming year, highlighting visualization as the second most important development in big data.Why is visualization such a compelling method for presenting data? Hans Rosling, a scientist known for his videos depicting interesting data, explains in a TED Talk, “The idea is to go from numbers to information to understanding.” Data presented in compelling visuals helps guide the viewer toward comprehension.3. Security for data.As self-service applications begin to democratize data for organizations, and visualization helps more members of the organization access and comprehend crucial information, the need for securing that information increases. More people accessing and sharing data means more opportunities for proprietary data to leak, and more potential points for external attacks.Related: 4 Strategies Small Businesses Can Use To Avoid a Data BreachGartner estimates that by 2018 20 percent of organizations will be looking to develop sound data security governance plans to protect themselves from data breaches on the cloud. Those that fail to do so will likely encounter damaging security breaches and subsequent fallout.Firms like USEReady take an integrated approach, helping companies use business intelligence tools while creating plans for securing their data. Hegde explains, “BI systems in large organizations often create security challenges when not managed correctly. It is important for these businesses to evaluate their data infrastructure and create governance strategies to keep it secure.” Businesses that successfully integrate security into all data applications will help prevent the hardships that come from breaches.BI and big data have enormous potential for improving the quality of decisions and strategies. Companies that leverage self-service tools to collect and present their data to all members of the team will increase the number of informed decision makers and will likely see an increase in operational efficiency and business performance.Related: 4 Ways Artificial Intelligence Boosts Workforce ProductivityHegde reminds us that effective business intelligence, “empowers leaders to ask crucial questions, the answers to which will help them make better decisions about allocating limited resources, how to refine processes, and where to place people.” In doing so, business owners, entrepreneurs and leaders can identify opportunities for growth, while limiting the potential for risk. Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global May 29, 2017 Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. 5 min read