Irishman Paddy Fitzpatrick has been named as George Groves’ new trainer.Groves and Adam Booth recently announced that they have ended their working relationship after five years.Booth, who has been his trainer and manager since Groves turned professional, said last week that he would not be working with him in the build-up to the Hammersmith super-middleweight’s world title challenge against Carl Froch on 23 November.Fitzpatrick has been a key member of Groves’ training team for some time and has been in his corner for previous fights.“Paddy and I have worked closely together in the past and already have a very good relationship, one built over many years,” said Groves.“Not only has he worked my corner for important fights, we have also spent a lot of time together when abroad on training camps, where Paddy has overseen a number of significant sessions.“Although this is a fresh change for me, I’m working with someone I know and respect, and someone who knows my game inside out.“We both know how the other works, so it won’t take long to hit the ground running.”Fitzpatrick has spent much of his career working alongside highly regarded trainers Freddie Roach and Buddy McGirt at the Wild Card gym in Los Angeles.And Groves, 25, believes he will be in good hands ahead of the showdown with champion Froch in Manchester.“His experience and knowledge of the game is world class and he is, without doubt, the perfect trainer to help me prepare for my next fight,” said Groves.“He has a great energy, both in the gym and on fight night, and I feel totally comfortable in his presence.“I’m looking forward to working with Paddy on a full-time basis and I’m excited to start adding many more tools to my arsenal.“By the time 23 November arrives, I’ll be better than ever – and more than capable of dethroning Carl Froch.”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 Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
How is a cell like a computer? Some Yale scientists asked that question, and embarked on a project to compare the genome of a lowly bacterium to a computer’s operating system.1. Their work was published in PNAS.2 As with most analogies, some things were found to be similar, and some different – but in the end, these two entities might be more similar overall in important respects. The interdisciplinary team, composed of members of the Computer Science department and the Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry department, calls itself the Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Recognizing that “The genome has often been called the operating system (OS) for a living organism,” they decided to explore the analogy. For subjects, they took the E. coli bacterium, one of the best-studied prokaryotic cells, and Linux, a popular Unix-based operating system. The abstract reveals the basic findings, but there’s more under the hood:To apply our firsthand knowledge of the architecture of software systems to understand cellular design principles, we present a comparison between the transcriptional regulatory network of a well-studied bacterium (Escherichia coli) and the call graph of a canonical OS (Linux) in terms of topology and evolution. We show that both networks have a fundamentally hierarchical layout, but there is a key difference: The transcriptional regulatory network possesses a few global regulators at the top and many targets at the bottom; conversely, the call graph has many regulators controlling a small set of generic functions. This top-heavy organization leads to highly overlapping functional modules in the call graph, in contrast to the relatively independent modules in the regulatory network. We further develop a way to measure evolutionary rates comparably between the two networks and explain this difference in terms of network evolution. The process of biological evolution via random mutation and subsequent selection tightly constrains the evolution of regulatory network hubs. The call graph, however, exhibits rapid evolution of its highly connected generic components, made possible by designers’ continual fine-tuning. These findings stem from the design principles of the two systems: robustness for biological systems and cost effectiveness (reuse) for software systems.We see they have already concocted a curious mixture of designer language and evolution language. The design language continues in the heart of the paper. Design principles, optimization, constraints, frameworks, interconnections, information processing – these engineering phrases are ubiquitous. Consider this paragraph that starts with “master control plan.” They applied it not to Linux but to the cell, which is found to have many similarities to the master control plan of the computer operating system:The master control plan of a cell is its transcriptional regulatory network. The transcriptional regulatory network coordinates gene expression in response to environmental and intracellular signals, resulting in the execution of cellular processes such as cell divisions and metabolism. Understanding how cellular control processes are orchestrated by transcription factors (TFs) is a fundamental objective of systems biology, and therefore a great deal of effort has been focused on understanding the structure and evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks. Analogous to the transcriptional regulatory network in a cell, a computer OS consists of thousands of functions organized into a so-called call graph, which is a directed network whose nodes are functions with directed edges leading from a function to each other function it calls. Whereas the genome-wide transcriptional regulatory network and the call graph are static representations of all possible regulatory relationships and calls, both transcription regulation and function activation are dynamic. Different sets of transcription factors and target genes forming so-called functional modules are activated at different times and in response to different environmental conditions. In the same way, complex OSs are organized into modules consisting of functions that are executed for various tasks.And yet, on the other hand, the team felt that both the cell and Linux vary under processes of evolution:Like biological systems, software systems such as a computer operating system (OS) are adaptive systems undergoing evolution. Whereas the evolution of biological systems is subject to natural selection, the evolution of software systems is under the constraints of hardware architecture and customer requirements. Since the pioneering work of Lehman, the evolutionary pressure on software has been studied among engineers. Interestingly enough, biological and software systems both execute information processing tasks. Whereas biological information processing is mediated by complex interactions between genes, proteins, and various small molecules, software systems exhibit a comparable level of complexity in the interconnections between functions. Understanding the structure and evolution of their underlying networks sheds light on the design principles of both natural and man-made information processing systems.These paragraphs provide a flavor of the basic assumptions of the paper: that cells and OSs are analogous in their design principles and in their evolution. So what did they find? Their most eye-catching chart shows that Linux is top-heavy with master regulators and middle management functions, whereas a cell’s transcription network is bottom-heavy with workhorse proteins and few top management functions. The illustration has been reproduced in an article on PhysOrg with the interesting headline, “Scientists Explain Why Computers Crash But We Don’t.” A table in the Discussion section of the paper summarizes the main similarities and differences they found. Here are some noteworthy examples:Cells are constrained by the environment; Linux by the hardware and customer needs.Cells evolve by natural selection; Linux evolves by designers’ fine-tuning.Cells have a pyramid-shaped hierarchy; Linux is top-heavy.Cells don’t reuse genes much, but Linux reuses function calls often.Cells don’t allow much overlap between modules, but Linux does.Cells have many specialized workhorses; Linux concentrates on generic functions.Cell evolutionary rates are mostly conservative; in Linux, they are conservative to adaptive.Cell design principles are bottom up; in Linux, they are top down.Cells are optimized for robustness; Linux is optimized for cost effectiveness.The differences seem to be winning. Cells and Operating Systems have different constraints; therefore, they have different design principles and optimization. But not so fast; the team only studied a very lowly bacterium. What would happen if they expanded their study upward into the complex world of eukaryotes? Here’s how the paper ended:Reuse is extremely common in designing man-made systems. For biological systems, to what extent they reuse their repertoires and by what means sustain robustness at the same time are questions of much interest. It was recently proposed that the repertoire of enzymes could be viewed as the toolbox of an organism. As the genome of an organism grows larger, it can reuse its tools more often and thus require fewer and fewer new tools for novel metabolic tasks. In other words, the number of enzymes grows slower than the number of transcription factors when the size of the genome increases. Previous studies have made the related finding that as one moves towards more complex organisms, the transcriptional regulatory network has an increasingly top-heavy structure with a relatively narrow base. Thus, it may be that further analysis will demonstrate the increasing resemblance of more complex eukaryotic regulatory networks to the structure of the Linux call graph.1. An operating system is the foundational software on a computer that runs applications. A useful analogy is the management company for a convention center. It doesn’t run conventions itself, but it knows the hardware (exhibit halls, restrooms, lights, water, power, catering) and has the personnel to operate the facilities so that a visiting company (application) can run their convention at the center.2. Yan, Fang, Bhardwaj, Alexander, and Gerstein, “Comparing genomes to computer operating systems in terms of the topology and evolution of their regulatory control networks,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published online before print May 3, 2010, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0914771107.This is a really interesting paper, because it illustrates the intellectual schizophrenia of the modern Darwinist in the information age. It might be analogous to a post-Stalin-era communist ideologue trying to recast Marxist-Leninist theory for the late 1980s, when the failures of collectivism have long been painfully apparent to everyone except the party faithful. With a half-hearted smile, he says, “So we see, that capitalism does appear to work in certain environments under different constraints; in fact, it may well turn out to be the final stage of the proletarian revolution.” Well, for crying out loud, then, why not save a step, and skip over the gulags to the promised land of freedom! You notice that the old Darwin Party natural-selection ideology was everywhere assumed, not demonstrated. The analogy of natural selection to “customer requirements and designers’ fine-tuning” is strained to put it charitably; to put it realistically, it is hilariously funny. The authors nowhere demonstrated that robustness is a less worthy design goal than cost-effectiveness. For a cell cast into a dynamic world, needing to survive, what design goal could be more important than robustness? Linux lives at predictable temperatures in nice, comfortable office spaces. Its designers have to design for paying customers. As a result, “the operating system is more vulnerable to breakdowns because even simple updates to a generic routine can be very disruptive,” PhysOrg admitted. Bacteria have to live out in nature. A cost-effective E. coli is a dead E. coli. The designer did a pretty good job to make those critters survive all kinds of catastrophes on this planet. The PhysOrg article simply swept this difference into the evolutionary storytelling motor mouth, mumbling of the bacterial design, that “over billions of years of evolution, such an organization has proven robust.” That would be like our communist spin doctor alleging that the success of capitalism proves the truth of Marxist doctrine. A simple bacterial genome shows incredibly successful design for robustness when compared to a computer operating system, albeit at the cost of low reuse of modules. But then the authors admitted the possibility that eukaryotes might well have achieved both robustness and modular reusability. That would make the comparison to artificial operating systems too close to call. If we know that Linux did not evolve by mutations and natural selection, then it is a pretty good bet that giraffes and bats and whales and humans did not, either. That should be enough to get Phillip Johnson’s stirring speech, “Mr. Darwin, Tear down this wall!” to stimulate a groundswell of discontent with the outmoded regime. May it lead to a sudden and surprising demise of its icons, and a new birth of academic freedom.(Visited 52 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest By Jon Scheve, Superior Feed Ingredients, LLCFor the 1st time in 9 years, December corn on the last day of November traded higher than the last day of October by 3 cents. Looking forward, 7 of the last 8 years, March corn eventually traded at a higher value than where it was on the last day of November. The rally was more than 25 cents 6 of those 7 years. Following the 2012 harvest was the only year when prices didn’t rally, and after the 2015 harvest March futures only rallied 9 cents.While obviously historical trends aren’t a guarantee, I think this suggests there is opportunity in the corn market. Capturing carry and paying for storageLast week I rolled my December futures sales to July to take advantage of the 27-cent market carry available in the market.I bought my December futures back and immediately sold the July contract. When I do this the actual values don’t matter, just the spread amount. This 27 cents is now profit that I can add to my bottom line for grain that I will hold in storage until summer. In simple terms, I’m following the first rule of business — I’m buying futures at a low price and immediately selling futures at a higher price. An important note, I can only take advantage of market carry if I have sales in place already.Capturing the market carry is one of the best ways I can guarantee additional profits for my farm operation with very little risk. Despite so many benefits, some farmers are hesitant to do it. Following are some questions/concerns I’ve heard.Some people just prefer to make a cash sale to an end user when prices rally instead of doing it this way. That’s understandable and usually much easier, but I’ve found taking the easy route in grain marketing usually means sacrificing profit potential.For example, when I made the sales against the December futures detailed above back in May, Dec futures were above $4.20. At that time, the spread between December and the July contract was only 16 cents, compared to the 27 cents I got last week. Also, the basis last May at my local end user was 3 cents lower for July ’19 shipment than the bid this week.So, had I made a cash sale last May for July delivery I would have missed out on 14 cents:Market Carry: 27 cents – 16 cents = 11 cents lessBasis: 3 cents lessTotal: 14 cents lessThat’s why I never make cash sales. The three factors that make up cash prices — futures, basis and market carry — are never all at their highs at the same time. Each has its own seasonality and factors that determine their value. So, by shifting my grain marketing strategy to maximize the profit potential of each factor independently, I can take advantage of more opportunity in the market and minimize my risk exposure. For the average farmer raising an average yield, that could mean $25 per acre more breaking the parts of the trade out. (178.5 /bu yield x 14-cent premium) Well what about cash flow holding corn until July? Why not take the great corn price now? I can make 3.85 cents per month holding my corn until July (27 cents / 7 months). Current interest rates on lines of credit are around 5.25%. With $3.30 cash values in my area, holding corn costs me 1.44 cents per month (5.25% x $3.30 / 12 months = 1.44). So I ‘m still making over 2.41 cents per month holding my corn and not paying my operation note. That is nearly 17 cents of profit (2.41 x 7 months).Note: I can only do this if my grain is already sold and my banker is on board. In my experience, bankers are happy to extend the loan when these numbers within a plan are provided to them.What about coring bins to keep the grain in condition? I’m always in favor of coring bins out in the winter to make sure the grain is kept in good condition. However, the market incentives me to wait as long as possible and to move the least amount I can. When the time comes to core my bins, I’ll analyze how it will affect my hedge account and the carry I can get compared to moving grain earlier or later.What my plan now? I want to maximize my basis profit potential. So far in my area, the nearby basis has improved 19 cents from the harvest low. The basis values at my local end user against the Dec and July futures were the same. In 8 of the last 10 years, basis values in my area improved another 10 cents by waiting longer. The years it didn’t improve followed the large harvests of 2009 and 2016. Historical performance is not a guarantee of future results, but the odds are in my favor of waiting for basis improvement down the road. How much does storing corn really pay? After interest, my market carry net profit is 17 cents and basis has already improved 19 cents since harvest. That’s a total of 36 cents I could lock in right now. That is above my bin payments on my 7-year loan. Building bins is one of the best ways for my farm operation to increase profits. What about the corn you haven’t sold? I’ve had some unpriced corn the past two years where I can’t capture market carry on all of my corn production. This year I have about 50% hedged so far. Not only have I missed the market carry opportunity on half of my crop, but I’m also still paying interest on the grain while waiting for better prices. If I manage to sell some corn against the March, and then hold it in the bins until July, I could still collect about half the carry that I collected on the December to July spread. It’s a good lesson on why it’s so important for me to be an aggressive corn seller before harvest. What will you do with your unpriced corn? I’m not sure exactly. Historically prices rally between now and the beginning of March. So, I need to be prepared for any opportunity available to sell, but I also have several different options positions working if prices don’t rally. This is why grain marking is so difficult. Nothing is certain and trying to hit the high can be extremely costly.Bottom line: there is a lot of profit potential available in breaking out the factors that make up cash prices — futures, market carry and basis. By maximizing the potential of each factor independently I can maximize profits and minimize risk. For market carry, I can only take advantage if I have my corn sold. So, that means I need to make every effort to sell as much grain as possible before harvest. I need to be more aggressive selling than in the past and avoid waiting too long, hoping prices go even higher. I have to remember that if prices do go higher, I always have more grain to sell. If I think about it that way, I’m never missing out on a rallies, just delaying them to a different production year. Jon grew up raising corn and soybeans on a farm near Beatrice, NE. Upon graduation from The University of Nebraska in Lincoln, he became a grain merchandiser and has been trading corn, soybeans and other grains for the last 18 years, building relationships with end-users in the process. After successfully marketing his father’s grain and getting his MBA, 10 years ago he started helping farmer clients market their grain based upon his principals of farmer education, reducing risk, understanding storage potential and using basis strategy to maximize individual farm operation profits. A big believer in farmer education of futures trading, Jon writes a weekly commentary to farmers interested in learning more and growing their farm operations.Trading of futures, options, swaps and other derivatives is risky and is not suitable for all persons. All of these investment products are leveraged, and you can lose more than your initial deposit. Each investment product is offered only to and from jurisdictions where solicitation and sale are lawful, and in accordance with applicable laws and regulations in such jurisdiction. The information provided here should not be relied upon as a substitute for independent research before making your investment decisions. Superior Feed Ingredients, LLC is merely providing this information for your general information and the information does not take into account any particular individual’s investment objectives, financial situation, or needs. All investors should obtain advice based on their unique situation before making any investment decision. The contents of this communication and any attachments are for informational purposes only and under no circumstances should they be construed as an offer to buy or sell, or a solicitation to buy or sell any future, option, swap or other derivative. The sources for the information and any opinions in this communication are believed to be reliable, but Superior Feed Ingredients, LLC does not warrant or guarantee the accuracy of such information or opinions. Superior Feed Ingredients, LLC and its principals and employees may take positions different from any positions described in this communication. Past results are not necessarily indicative of future results. He can be contacted at email@example.com.
Quick roundup of what’s hot around the globe this month. Choose from the hottest events, shows happenings in the world of music, art, cinema, literature, sport, fashion, wine food.MAY 2AustraliaThink scrumptious grilled prawns, oysters, scallops, lobsters and the best Australian wine to go with it. Sample some of the most delectable seafood at Caxton Street Seafood and Wine Festival held annually at Brisbane. Being one of the most popular events in the city, locals don’t leave any opportunity to miss out on their favourite dishes. Top restaurants are willing to make any dish you fancy.CanadaAthletes from around the world come to Vancouver to take part in Canada’s largest marathon-Vancouver International Marathon. Besides running on the usual 42-km long track, you can also choose the half marathon or the eight-km long race. There is even a marathon for children. And feast your eyes on some of the most stunning places in the city while running.MAY 6 to 16UKWant to have a good laugh? Head to Liverpool for the ultimate comedy show-Liverpool Comedy Festival-that takes place at various locations in the city. Besides a comic play, there are a range of interesting shows for children as well and a number of acts you have not even heard about. It’s more exciting than you think. So our suggestion is just relax and get ready to roll on the floor with laughter.MAY 7 TO 9SpainThis is one race you would not want to miss. Gear up to watch the world’s best racers build up speed and take on each other at the race tracks at Catalunya outside Barcelona. Feel the surge of adrenaline at the Formula 1 Spanish Grand Prix, a much-awaited event in the city. A mix of different speed corners and track surfaces keeps the drivers challenged and viewers engaged.MAY 8GermanyNo city can hold more live concerts than Munich does during the Long Night of Music when more than 100 locations across the city come alive with over 400 live concerts. Think blues, flamenco, hip-hop, jazz, rock and much more. From 8p.m. to 3 in the morning you can visit various venues and explore Munich’s vibrant music scene. And one ticket gets you entry to all the places.MAY 12 TO 23FranceThe red carpet is rolled out, the films have been shortlisted and there is a buzz in the air as one of the oldest and most prestigious film festivals-Cannes Film Festival-is back. Running in its 63rd year, the red carpet is ready to welcome over 50,000 filmmakers and actors coming from across the world. Thousands of films from across the world are screened. So get ready to watch films and party.MAY 13 TO 16New ZealandThe New Zealand Boat Show is for serious boaters and for those who dream of owning a boat. The country’s biggest collection of new boats and accessories are displayed by over 200 exhibitors. This show attracts as many as 40,000 visitors. There are a number of workshops that take place over the days, which even includes tips on boating and fishing.MAY 17 TO 23AustraliaIf you are a bookworm the Sydney Writers’ Festival is right up your sleeve. It is clearly the biggest literary and book festival of the country where you come face to face with your favourite authors and books. It has the widest selection of books you can lay your hands on. Some of the best authors of Australia will come for talk shows. Get ready to live your fantasy of being surrounded by books.MAY 23 TO JUN 6FranceThe ultimate in tennis championship, the French Open is back. Hosted by one of the prettiest and romantic cities in the world-Paris-you can watch pros in action as they fight for the title at Roland Garros court. Famous for more than the world class tennis tournament, this grand slam event is also trademark of some things completely French. Book your tickets in advance and enjoy the game.MAY 24 TO 17SingaporeIt is time for children to go wild and show their creativity at the Sculpture Carnival held at Sculpture Square in Singapore. For four days artists conduct workshops and teach children from 10 to 18 years of age how to make sculptures perfectly. Everything on display is created by the youngsters who use bright and cheerful colours to create their perfect artwork.MAY 26 TO 28IndiaThis summer head to the coolest part of Rajasthan-Mount Abu-to experience Rajasthani warmth and hospitality at the Summer Festival. The first day you can catch traditional cultural performances. The second and third day are full of fun activities. Don’t forget to visit the food stalls and dig into Rajasthani food. The grand finale on the third day includes fireworks.MAY 27IndiaHead to the holy city of Varanasi to celebrate Buddha Purnima, the birth anniversary of the Buddha. Pilgrims from across the country gather here to pay homage to the Enlightened One. Prayer meetings, group meditation sessions and religious services also grace the occasion. Be one among the millions of people who scramble to take a dip in the sacred Ganges to wash away your sins. advertisementadvertisement