‘Clarendon derby’ in RSPL – Humble Lion, Portmore United clash at Effortville

first_img tough game “We lost some points that we didn’t bargain for ourselves, and they are coming off two straight losses, but we will not be fooled by that. “They will be coming to up the tempo against us, and even with those losses, we would be prepared for a tough game from them,” Vassell Reynolds, coach of Humble Lion said of today’s big clash. He added: “On paper, it is a Clarendon derby, as we are based in Clarendon and a large percentage of the Portmore United players are based in the parish. With that situation, neither team needs anything more to motivate the players.” Leading up to this game, Reynolds said his players trained well with a lot of emphasis on the mental aspects of the game. “We did a lot on the mental side, which will be key to the outcome of this game. “Wolry Wolfe has been leading the charge for us and others like Levaughn Williams, Ricardo Cousins, Devon Hodges, and FranÁois Swaby are also capable of delivering for us. Once we can get them to join the likes of Wolfe and Andrew Vanzie, in terms of performance and leadership, we will be fine,” the positive Reynolds said. As far as Portmore United’s Clive Marshall is concerned, the main focus for his team is to improve on their last two performances and return to their productive ways. Nothing else matters. “This game is more like a derby, given tradition and history, but we are not looking at it like that. We are looking at improving on our last two results and returning to winning ways,” manager Marshall said. According to Marshall, there is no time for making excuses about why they lost and the manner in which they lost. It was time taking responsibility and putting measures in place to correct the mistakes and not repeating them. While Jovan East has been the most consistent in front of goal this season and Ewan Grandison in one of the most experienced, Marshall said getting back to winning ways was not up to one or two players but the entire team. “We have a young team, but if the more experienced players provide the leadership and the other players respond in a similar way then we will be OK, but it has to be a team effort,” declared Marshall. At Barbican Stadium Boys’ Town will be looking to follow up their big win over Portmore United with a victory over the stabilising UWIFC while Cavalier can keep themselves out of the relegation zone with a win over Waterhouse. Today’s games: 3 p.m: Boys’ Town vs UWI FC – Barbican Stadium 5 p.m: Cavalier vs Waterhouse – Stadium East 3 p.m: Humble Lion vs Portmore United – Effortville Community Centre 3 p.m: Reno vs Rivoli United – Frome Complex 3 p.m: Tivoli Gardens vs Arnett Gardens – Edward Seaga Complex Tomorrow’s game: 8:40 p.m: Harbour View vs Montego Bay United – Harbour View Stadium Points standing P W D L GF GA GD O Pts MoBay United 17 9 6 2 29 11 18 33 Portmore 17 9 4 4 18 14 4 31 Arnett 17 9 2 6 24 13 11 29 Humble Lion FC 17 7 7 3 14 11 3 28 H.View 17 6 6 5 18 18 0 24 Reno 17 5 7 5 17 19 -2 22 Boys’ Town 17 6 4 7 19 22 -3 22 UWI FC 17 6 4 7 16 23 -7 22 Tivoli 17 5 4 8 21 23 -2 19 Cavalier 17 4 5 8 7 14 -7 17 Rivoli 17 4 4 9 19 25 -6 16 Waterhouse 17 3 5 9 13 22 -9 14 Prepared forcenter_img Former leaders Portmore United could find themselves overtaken by Humble Lion when the two meet today in the Red Stripe Premier League at Effortville Community Centre. Portmore United currently sit second in the table on 31 points, two behind leaders Montego Bay United and three ahead of Humble Lion. Normally, the visitors would be favoured to win, but they are on a two-game losing streak, losing 2-1 to 10th-placed Cavalier SC and 3-0 to seventh-placed Boys’ Town at the Juici Park field. This form should convince the Humble Lion players and fans that they have a good chance, especially at home.last_img read more

Asian Games: Guiao slams choice of Hong Kong referee in loss to China

first_imgLights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew ‘High crimes and misdemeanors’: Trump impeachment trial begins Gov’t in no rush to rescue animals in Taal The Philippines had clawed their way back from 72-62 down to lead 77-80 with just over a minute to go, before letting the win slip out of their hands.“We committed some mistakes in the last 60 seconds,” admitted Guiao.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next LATEST STORIES Serena Williams seeded 17 at US Open, 9 spots above ranking Peza offers relief to ecozone firms Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil MOST READ The Philippines side are no strangers to controversy, and almost did not attend the tournament after having 10 players and two coaches suspended by world body FIBA following an on-court brawl in a World Cup qualifier against Australia.Cleveland Cavalier guard Clarkson only joined up with the team last week after the NBA released him to play in the event in a dramatic late U-turn.Clarkson top-scored in the match against China, with 28 points including five three-pointers. But he was sidelined with cramp during the final quarter, before returning to give away the two vital free throws that ultimately handed China victory.“Jordan Clarkson cramped so we had to put him on the bench for several minutes,” said Guiao. “He was really in pain. He was not hundred percent when he got back.”“But those are the breaks of the game, no?”ADVERTISEMENT “They let a Hong Kong referee, which is also Chinese territory, referee against us,” said Guiao. “And they gave them 39 free throws and they gave us only 15, no?”“So I thought somebody from Hong Kong which is controlled by China should not referee a China game,” Guaio told ABS-CBN on Wednesday, referring to chief official Yuen Chun Yip.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSJapeth Aguilar wins 1st PBA Finals MVP award for GinebraSPORTSTim Cone still willing to coach Gilas but admits decision won’t be ‘simple yes or no’Hong Kong is a semi-autonomous Special Administrative Region of China, but competes separately at major sports events including the Olympics and Asian Games.The loss leaves the Philippines relying on results elsewhere in their group to progress to the knockouts of Asia’s regional Olympics. Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award DepEd’s Taal challenge: 30K students displaced Will you be the first P16 Billion Powerball jackpot winner from the Philippines? Judy Ann’s 1st project for 2020 is giving her a ‘stomachache’ Palace OKs total deployment ban on Kuwait OFWs Philippines players wave to the crowd after their 82-80 los to China in their men’s basketball game at the 18th Asian Games in Jakarta, Indonesia on Tuesday, Aug. 21, 2018. (AP Photo/Aaron Favila)The Philippine national team coach Yeng Guiao said a referee from “Chinese territory” should not have officiated his side’s narrow loss to China at the Asian Games, querying the number of fouls his side was awarded.A Philippines side bolstered by newly arrived NBA star Jordan Clarkson were pipped 82-80 in Tuesday’s thrilling match after China scored two free throws awarded by the Hong Kong referee with just 13 seconds left.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View commentslast_img read more

City hosting Parent & Tot Tuesdays skating program

first_imgFor more information, you can call the City’s Recreation Department at 250-785-4592 or visit the Recreation website. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – The City of Fort St. John Recreation is hosting Parent & Tot Tuesdays.Parent & Tots Tuesdays is a drop-in session for parents to skate with their toddlers and get skating tips from an instructor.This is a drop-in program, and there will be an instructor on the ice to set up stations, toys, and games to help toddlers learn motor skills to succeed on the ice.- Advertisement -The City says all parents/guardians must pay their drop-in fee and go on the ice with their children. Helmets are mandatory for children and highly recommended for parents. Pay your drop-in fee of $4.25, at the Visitor Centre, before heading up to the Oval.Parent & Tot Tuesdays is open to youth 1 to 5 years of age, accompanied by a parent or guardian 16 years and older.Parent & Tot Tuesdays takes place from January 22 to March 12, from 11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. at the Oval located in the Pomeroy Sport Centre.Advertisementlast_img read more

Hand of God goal ‘wouldn’t have stood’: Maradona on VAR

first_img0Shares0000Argentinian football star Diego Maradona used his hand to score in Argentina’s 2-1 quarter-final victory against England during their 1986 World Cup-winning campaign © AFP/File / Fabrice COFFRINIPARIS, France, Jul 25 – Argentinian great Diego Maradona accepted on Tuesday that his infamous ‘Hand of God’ goal would have been ruled out with video technology, as he backed the use of video assistant referees (VAR).Maradona used his hand to score in Argentina’s 2-1 quarter-final victory against England during their 1986 World Cup-winning campaign, and also admitted to another crucial handball in the 1990 tournament. “I think about it whenever I show my support for the use of technology,” he told Fifa.com.“I thought about it and, sure, that goal wouldn’t have stood if technology had been around.“And I’ll tell you something else: at the 1990 World Cup I used my hand to clear the ball off the line against the Soviet Union.“We were lucky because the referee didn’t see it. You couldn’t use technology then, but it’s a different story today.”Goalline technology is now widely used in world football, while VAR was used for the first time in a senior international tournament during last month’s Confederations Cup in Russia.The system worked to varying degrees of success, with many incorrect decisions rectified, but plenty of critics accused it of taking too long and being confusing for supporters.“Football can’t fall behind,” insisted Maradona.“People used to say that we’d waste a lot of time, that it would cause a lot of annoyance. But that’s not the case.“People get annoyed when something that shouldn’t be given is given, or when you have a goal wrongly disallowed. Technology brings transparency and quality, and it provides a positive outcome for teams who decide to attack and take risks.”Maradona was keen to point out that it wouldn’t have only been controversial incidents involving him that would have been different with technology.“It’s not just my goal in ’86 that wouldn’t have counted. Let’s not forget that England won the World Cup in ’66 with a shot that didn’t go over the line,” he added.“Then it happened to them in 2010, when (Frank) Lampard’s shot crossed the line against Germany but wasn’t given. England had the ball and scored the goal they deserved, but Germany grew in confidence after that and it changed the match completely.”Earlier this year FIFA president Gianni Infantino said VAR would be used at next year’s World Cup finals in Russia.He defended its use in the Confederations Cup, saying that while improvements could be made, without VAR the tournament “would have been a little less fair”.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)last_img read more

West Ham’s big summer splurge to continue with £70million midfielder deals?

first_imgThe Ivory Coast international has a £35m release clause in his contract and is understood to be eager to move to the Premier League.West Ham are also in talks over a potential deal for Anderson, the Lazio winger.The 25-year-old Brazilian is also valued at around £35million and has been tracked by numerous elite European clubs.Jack Wilshere is another potential arrival at West Ham this summer after leaving Arsenal, with Pellegrini making big plans.‘What the hell is going on?’ – West Ham United fans react to their transfer business so far They have promised Pellegrini he will be able to overhaul a squad which struggled last season, and co-owners David Gold and David Sullivan have stayed true to their word.Highly-rated full-back Ryan Fredericks has arrived from Fulham on a free transfer, goalkeeper Lukasz Fabianski has signed from Swansea City in a £7million deal, while central defender Issa Diop has joined from Toulouse for a club record fee of around £22million.Now Pellegrini is looking to boost his midfield options and is showing an interest in Jean Michael Seri and Felipe Anderson.Seri, the 26-year-old Nice midfielder, is rated as one of the top central midfielders in France and has attracted attention from Arsenal, Barcelona and Chelsea. 2 West Ham are making a big splash in the transfer market this summer.The Hammers appointed Manuel Pellegrini, a Premier League title winner with Manchester City, as their new manager last month. Manuel Pellegrini has big plans for West Ham Jean Michael Seri and Felipe Anderson are on West Ham’s radar 2last_img read more

CUTLIFFE SLAMS LABOUR FOR HI-JACKING HIS POLLING CLERK CAMPAIGN

first_imgCommunity Election candidate Peter Cutliffe has slammed the local Labour Party for its belated call to make polling-clerk positions available to the unemployed.Peter CutliffeReacting to the party’s statement in today’s ‘Donegal Daily’, Cutliffe stated that it was a bit “late in the day” for the Labour Party candidate, Siobhan Mc Laughlin being ‘concerned ‘ about an issue he has raised for the past 3 years!“I believe it is symptomatic of a party that is bereft of ideas and real policies to put our country back to work. “And I believe that people will see this call by the Labour Party as a poor attempt to launch an election campaign,” Mr Cutliffe concluded.CUTLIFFE SLAMS LABOUR FOR HI-JACKING HIS POLLING CLERK CAMPAIGN was last modified: March 23rd, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:donegalelectionPeter Cutliffepolling clerkssiobhan mclaughlinlast_img read more

PAT PUTS ON THE TEA FOR THE ALZHEIMER’S SOCIETY IN CREESLOUGH – PIC SPECIAL

first_imgI could have sworn I left a cup of tea here with this scone! Locals enjoy the craic at Pat McCarry’s house in aid of the Donegal branch of the Alzheimer’s Society. ALL PICS BY KIND PERMISSION OF MOSES ALCORNThese ladies are looking well at the tea party in Creeslough. PAT PUTS ON THE TEA FOR THE ALZHEIMER’S SOCIETY IN CREESLOUGH – PIC SPECIAL was last modified: August 9th, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Alzheimer’s SocietyCreesloughdonegalPat McCarrylast_img read more

JOB VACANCIES: AWARD-WINNING DONEGAL HOTEL SEEKING TO RECRUIT MORE STAFF

first_imgJOB VACANCIES: The Inishowen Gateway Hotel is now recruiting a number of key staff coming into the summer season.THREE roles are now available, all permanent positions. This includes:Full time Restaurant and Bar food ManagerFull time Banqueting SupervisorPart time experienced Beauty TherapistThe Inishowen Gateway Hotel is a family owned and run business that hosts weddings, large scale conferences, 80 bedrooms with Spa and leisure Centre facilities plus a busy bar and restaurant service.It is busy all year round so the new recruits will be required to work on a rota basis which includes covering weekends.If you think you have what it takes to become a member of our team then email your CV today, with cover letter, to payroll@inishowengateway.com or address to: FAO: HR Inishowen Gateway Hotel, Railway Road, Buncrana, Co Donegal or contact us on 07493 61144.JOB VACANCIES: AWARD-WINNING DONEGAL HOTEL SEEKING TO RECRUIT MORE STAFF was last modified: June 10th, 2015 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:jobsnewslast_img read more

Scientific Data Can Mislead

first_imgSome recent stories should remind scientists that data do not exist in a philosophical vacuum.  Sometimes empirical measurements can be downright misleading.Pillars of creation:  The famous Hubble photo of the Eagle Nebula’s “pillars of creation” seemed to have a straightforward explanation: nearby stars were eroding the pillars with blasts of radiation.  Scientists have been studying the photo more carefully.  Some are coming up with a radically different interpretation, reported Space.com, that turns the previous explanation upside down.  The pillars were pushed into place.  Both explanations involve radiation pressure from nearby stars, but an Irish astronomer said, “There is, as yet, no clear consensus in the literature regarding the formation of the pillars”.X-rays deceive:  Nature last week began a news article with “X-ray astronomy: When appearances are deceptive.”1  For years, astronomers have tried to explain an X-ray glow around the Milky Way.  Exotic explanations like supermassive black holes had been put forth.  Now, a new map has resolved the glow into discrete sources.  This means the X-rays are probably coming from point sources like ordinary stars.  “With blurry vision, one can imagine strange and wonderful things that later turn out to be erroneous,” Shull said.  He likened this story to the fabled canals on Mars that evaporated when spacecraft dropped by to visit.Brain chaff:  Functional MRI (fMRI) is a powerful tool for discerning detail in the brain.  Trouble is, neuroscientists have not been doing very well at sifting the wheat from the chaff in the data.  In fact, Nature reported, “Nearly half of the neuroimaging studies published in prestige journals in 2008 contain unintentionally biased data that could distort their scientific conclusions.”2 Green fluorescent protein:  A workhorse of molecular biology has been green fluorescent protein (GFP), a molecule that glows.  GFP allows scientists to follow molecular interactions in the cell by inserting the gene for GFP in biochemical pathways.  Is it really a neutral probe, though?  Nature News reported that a Russian team found by accident that GFP donates electrons to nearby molecules, potentially altering their function.  The researcher said, “It is quite unexpected that GFP can interact with external molecules and donate electrons.”A book review in Nature last week reviewed historical examples of models and data that misled scientists.3  Andrew F. Read reviewed Pavlov’s Dogs and Schroedinger’s Cat: Scenes From the Living Laboratory by Rom Harr�.3  In this book, philosopher Rom Harr� recounted the use of animals as instruments in the history of science (think of Galvani using frog legs to test electricity).  “As a lucid illustration of the messy, chaotic and glorious professional world we scientists have always inhabited,” Read commented, “this book is great.”  Stories are amusing and shocking.  Harr� tells “one of the most gripping and succinct summaries of the Lysenko fiasco in Soviet genetics” that Read has ever read. Yet the book is more thought-provoking than a simple storytelling exercise.  It is organized not as a history, nor by scientific subject, but by the principles of the philosophy of science.  Chapters are devoted to organisms as detecting and measuring devices, and as tools for exploration, for testing hypotheses and for modelling reality.  This organization generates an easily digested introduction to many of the key concepts of the philosophy of science.  It demonstrates vividly that there is no single way of doing science; philosophers of science are hard pressed to describe what is going on, let alone prescribe what we ought to be doing.The only frustration Read felt was that last phrase.  Harr� left the reader hanging: what should scientists be doing?  He didn’t take up the pressing moral questions.  He said, “Only when we have a clear idea of what has been done by whom and for what purpose can we take up the pressing moral questions that must arise,“ but then later “dodged the bullet” himself by saying, “I leave the working out of moral arguments to others more qualified than I am to reach just and ethically sound conclusions.”  Read wondered who better than Harr� would be qualified to address that question.1.  Michael Shull, “X-ray astronomy: When appearances are deceptive,” Nature 458, 1119-1121 (30 April 2009) | doi:10.1038/4581119a.2.  Alison Abbott, “Brain imaging skewed; Double dipping of data magnifies errors in functional MRI scans,” Nature Published online 27 April 2009 | Nature | doi:10.1038/4581087a.3.  Andrew F. Read, “Tales of top models,” Nature 458, 1113-1114 (30 April 2009) | doi:10.1038/4581113a.With varying degrees of justification, Pavlov, Schroedinger, Lysenko, Galvani, Mesmer and others truly believed their scientific measurements and models were uncovering truths about nature – lifting a corner of the veil to discover realities beyond common-sense experience.  Once in awhile we are reminded that science is a messy project of fallible minds utilizing fallible senses to operate fallible instruments in the “messy, chaotic and glorious professional world … scientists have always inhabited.”  If it is messy for the hard sciences using real-time observation, how much more for the shadowy pasts of biological history and cosmology?    The history of science is a fascinating tale when told honestly (without the triumphalist March of Progress metaphor).  There were arguably more false starts and reversals than successes.  Some of the greatest successes (e.g., Newtonian gravity) proved vulnerable to further investigation centuries later.  We laugh at the alchemists spending centuries in a vain quest to turn base metals into gold, but in their own day, they were the “scientists” – the educated scholars, seeking understanding.  Surely such foibles are not happening any more today, are they?  Are they?    Read’s cautionary advice is worth repeating.  The book he reviewed provided only an easily digested introduction to many of the “key concepts of the philosophy of science.  It demonstrates vividly that there is no single way of doing science; philosophers of science are hard pressed to describe what is going on, let alone prescribe what we ought to be doing.”  Scientists today could use more humility.  They should not stand so high and mighty above scholars in other fields.  In some ways scientists are like drunkards stumbling around, once in awhile knocking their heads against the lamp posts of reality (see First Law of Scientific Progress and Young’s Law in the right sidebar).  The quote by Daniel Robinson at the end of the 12/11/2005 commentary bears repeating.(Visited 12 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Darwin’s Linux: Did Evolution Produce a Computer?

first_imgHow is a cell like a computer?  Some Yale scientists asked that question, and embarked on a project to compare the genome of a lowly bacterium to a computer’s operating system.1.  Their work was published in PNAS.2  As with most analogies, some things were found to be similar, and some different – but in the end, these two entities might be more similar overall in important respects.    The interdisciplinary team, composed of members of the Computer Science department and the Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry department, calls itself the Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.  Recognizing that “The genome has often been called the operating system (OS) for a living organism,” they decided to explore the analogy.  For subjects, they took the E. coli bacterium, one of the best-studied prokaryotic cells, and Linux, a popular Unix-based operating system.  The abstract reveals the basic findings, but there’s more under the hood:To apply our firsthand knowledge of the architecture of software systems to understand cellular design principles, we present a comparison between the transcriptional regulatory network of a well-studied bacterium (Escherichia coli) and the call graph of a canonical OS (Linux) in terms of topology and evolution.  We show that both networks have a fundamentally hierarchical layout, but there is a key difference: The transcriptional regulatory network possesses a few global regulators at the top and many targets at the bottom; conversely, the call graph has many regulators controlling a small set of generic functions.  This top-heavy organization leads to highly overlapping functional modules in the call graph, in contrast to the relatively independent modules in the regulatory network.  We further develop a way to measure evolutionary rates comparably between the two networks and explain this difference in terms of network evolution.  The process of biological evolution via random mutation and subsequent selection tightly constrains the evolution of regulatory network hubs.  The call graph, however, exhibits rapid evolution of its highly connected generic components, made possible by designers’ continual fine-tuning.  These findings stem from the design principles of the two systems: robustness for biological systems and cost effectiveness (reuse) for software systems.We see they have already concocted a curious mixture of designer language and evolution language.  The design language continues in the heart of the paper.  Design principles, optimization, constraints, frameworks, interconnections, information processing – these engineering phrases are ubiquitous.  Consider this paragraph that starts with “master control plan.”  They applied it not to Linux but to the cell, which is found to have many similarities to the master control plan of the computer operating system:The master control plan of a cell is its transcriptional regulatory network.  The transcriptional regulatory network coordinates gene expression in response to environmental and intracellular signals, resulting in the execution of cellular processes such as cell divisions and metabolism.  Understanding how cellular control processes are orchestrated by transcription factors (TFs) is a fundamental objective of systems biology, and therefore a great deal of effort has been focused on understanding the structure and evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks.  Analogous to the transcriptional regulatory network in a cell, a computer OS consists of thousands of functions organized into a so-called call graph, which is a directed network whose nodes are functions with directed edges leading from a function to each other function it calls.  Whereas the genome-wide transcriptional regulatory network and the call graph are static representations of all possible regulatory relationships and calls, both transcription regulation and function activation are dynamic.  Different sets of transcription factors and target genes forming so-called functional modules are activated at different times and in response to different environmental conditions.  In the same way, complex OSs are organized into modules consisting of functions that are executed for various tasks.And yet, on the other hand, the team felt that both the cell and Linux vary under processes of evolution:Like biological systems, software systems such as a computer operating system (OS) are adaptive systems undergoing evolution.  Whereas the evolution of biological systems is subject to natural selection, the evolution of software systems is under the constraints of hardware architecture and customer requirements.  Since the pioneering work of Lehman, the evolutionary pressure on software has been studied among engineers.  Interestingly enough, biological and software systems both execute information processing tasks.  Whereas biological information processing is mediated by complex interactions between genes, proteins, and various small molecules, software systems exhibit a comparable level of complexity in the interconnections between functions.  Understanding the structure and evolution of their underlying networks sheds light on the design principles of both natural and man-made information processing systems.These paragraphs provide a flavor of the basic assumptions of the paper: that cells and OSs are analogous in their design principles and in their evolution.  So what did they find?  Their most eye-catching chart shows that Linux is top-heavy with master regulators and middle management functions, whereas a cell’s transcription network is bottom-heavy with workhorse proteins and few top management functions.  The illustration has been reproduced in an article on PhysOrg with the interesting headline, “Scientists Explain Why Computers Crash But We Don’t.”    A table in the Discussion section of the paper summarizes the main similarities and differences they found.  Here are some noteworthy examples:Cells are constrained by the environment; Linux by the hardware and customer needs.Cells evolve by natural selection; Linux evolves by designers’ fine-tuning.Cells have a pyramid-shaped hierarchy; Linux is top-heavy.Cells don’t reuse genes much, but Linux reuses function calls often.Cells don’t allow much overlap between modules, but Linux does.Cells have many specialized workhorses; Linux concentrates on generic functions.Cell evolutionary rates are mostly conservative; in Linux, they are conservative to adaptive.Cell design principles are bottom up; in Linux, they are top down.Cells are optimized for robustness; Linux is optimized for cost effectiveness.The differences seem to be winning.  Cells and Operating Systems have different constraints; therefore, they have different design principles and optimization.  But not so fast; the team only studied a very lowly bacterium.  What would happen if they expanded their study upward into the complex world of eukaryotes?  Here’s how the paper ended:Reuse is extremely common in designing man-made systems.  For biological systems, to what extent they reuse their repertoires and by what means sustain robustness at the same time are questions of much interest.  It was recently proposed that the repertoire of enzymes could be viewed as the toolbox of an organism.  As the genome of an organism grows larger, it can reuse its tools more often and thus require fewer and fewer new tools for novel metabolic tasks.  In other words, the number of enzymes grows slower than the number of transcription factors when the size of the genome increases.  Previous studies have made the related finding that as one moves towards more complex organisms, the transcriptional regulatory network has an increasingly top-heavy structure with a relatively narrow base.  Thus, it may be that further analysis will demonstrate the increasing resemblance of more complex eukaryotic regulatory networks to the structure of the Linux call graph.1.  An operating system is the foundational software on a computer that runs applications.  A useful analogy is the management company for a convention center.  It doesn’t run conventions itself, but it knows the hardware (exhibit halls, restrooms, lights, water, power, catering) and has the personnel to operate the facilities so that a visiting company (application) can run their convention at the center.2.  Yan, Fang, Bhardwaj, Alexander, and Gerstein, “Comparing genomes to computer operating systems in terms of the topology and evolution of their regulatory control networks,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences published online before print May 3, 2010, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0914771107.This is a really interesting paper, because it illustrates the intellectual schizophrenia of the modern Darwinist in the information age.  It might be analogous to a post-Stalin-era communist ideologue trying to recast Marxist-Leninist theory for the late 1980s, when the failures of collectivism have long been painfully apparent to everyone except the party faithful.  With a half-hearted smile, he says, “So we see, that capitalism does appear to work in certain environments under different constraints; in fact, it may well turn out to be the final stage of the proletarian revolution.”  Well, for crying out loud, then, why not save a step, and skip over the gulags to the promised land of freedom!    You notice that the old Darwin Party natural-selection ideology was everywhere assumed, not demonstrated.  The analogy of natural selection to “customer requirements and designers’ fine-tuning” is strained to put it charitably; to put it realistically, it is hilariously funny.  The authors nowhere demonstrated that robustness is a less worthy design goal than cost-effectiveness.  For a cell cast into a dynamic world, needing to survive, what design goal could be more important than robustness?  Linux lives at predictable temperatures in nice, comfortable office spaces.  Its designers have to design for paying customers.  As a result, “the operating system is more vulnerable to breakdowns because even simple updates to a generic routine can be very disruptive,” PhysOrg admitted.  Bacteria have to live out in nature.  A cost-effective E. coli is a dead E. coli.  The designer did a pretty good job to make those critters survive all kinds of catastrophes on this planet.  The PhysOrg article simply swept this difference into the evolutionary storytelling motor mouth, mumbling of the bacterial design, that “over billions of years of evolution, such an organization has proven robust.”  That would be like our communist spin doctor alleging that the success of capitalism proves the truth of Marxist doctrine.    A simple bacterial genome shows incredibly successful design for robustness when compared to a computer operating system, albeit at the cost of low reuse of modules.  But then the authors admitted the possibility that eukaryotes might well have achieved both robustness and modular reusability.  That would make the comparison to artificial operating systems too close to call.  If we know that Linux did not evolve by mutations and natural selection, then it is a pretty good bet that giraffes and bats and whales and humans did not, either.  That should be enough to get Phillip Johnson’s stirring speech, “Mr. Darwin, Tear down this wall!” to stimulate a groundswell of discontent with the outmoded regime.  May it lead to a sudden and surprising demise of its icons, and a new birth of academic freedom.(Visited 52 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more