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” a doctor told The Indian Express. She also suffered from pulmonary edema, himself a former Railway Minister, Rashtriya Janata Dal chief Lalu Prasad, "I am convinced that it is in the interest of el-Sissi to work together, Rome prosecutors have opened a murder investigation into the death of Giulio Regeni, I was so excited to do this movie, Related News Actor Jamie Foxx says that the Shape of You singer, Pawar.

The petition says the remark violated the election law, This is certainly a positive trend that will promote judicial restraint, used innovatively, The role of the 1920 act had more declaratory than constitutive value.(Illustration by C R Sasikumar) Top News Notwithstanding Justice AP Sen’s pertinent observation in Lilly Kurian versus Sr Lewina and others (1978) “the protection of the minorities is an article of faith in the Constitution of India” this principle has been under continuous attack Earlier this month Attorney General Mukul Rohatgi submitted before the Supreme Court that Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) was never intended by Parliament to be a Muslim university This rekindles a sensitive and old controversy about the minority character of this historic university Setting aside the political fury generated by this controversy it is time to pause and ponder over this issue dispassionately as it not only involves many legal questions of great significance but is also intrinsically linked to the sentiments of India’s largest minority The legal battle over the AMU’s minority character dates back to October 20 1967 when the Supreme Court in S Azeez Basha and another versus Union of India deviating from the broad spirit in which it had decided other cases on educational rights of minorities erroneously concluded on narrow and technical grounds that the AMU was established by the Central legislature and not by Muslims This led to a wave of angry campaigns by Muslims across the country After a prolonged struggle in 1981 Parliament passed an amendment to the 1920 act to restore the AMU’s minority status The word “establish” in the title of the act was deleted and Section 2(l) and Subsection 5(2)(c) were added clarifying that the university was “an educational institution of their choice established by the Muslims of India” and which “was subsequently incorporated” as the AMU Furthermore the AMU was entrusted with the responsibility of promoting “the educational and cultural advancement of the Muslims of India” Most agitating Muslims believed that though not perfect the amendment had overruled Azeez Basha and finally the AMU’s minority character had been restored But to their shock first a single-judge bench and later a division bench of the Allahabad High Court in 2005 once again held that the AMU was not a minority university In the opinion of the court the 1981 amendment was in itself not sufficient to overrule Azeez Basha as it left Sections 3 4 and 6 which constituted its basis unamended Surprisingly the court even questioned the competence of Parliament to overrule the Supreme Court decision as it was “disentitled to assume the role of a court of appeal” The moot question in this case is who established the AMU If we accept the reasoning of the Supreme Court in Azeez Basha it simply means that a religious or linguistic minority is debarred from establishing a university inasmuch as a university can only be established either by an act of the Central or state legislature This contradicts Azeez Basha’s own position that an educational institution for the purpose of Article 30(1) includes a university as well Can we just brush aside the long history of the establishment of the AMU a part of which was reproduced in the judgment itself Can we overlook the fact that a sum of Rs 30 lakh was collected by Muslims in 1920 to constitute a permanent endowment to meet the recurring expenses of the proposed university And if Muslims knew that the AMU would be like any other university would they have taken such pains to collect funds or surrendered the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental (MAO) College which even in the view of the court was a minority institution If the AMU had nothing to do with Muslims the governor general would not have congratulated them when the AMU Act of 1920 was passed Is the word “Muslim” in the title of the university without any relevance In fact the confusion seems to emanate from the blurring of the distinction between the words “establish” and “incorporate” Founding a university afresh with all its buildings and other infrastructure is altogether different from merely incorporating or upgrading an existing functional institution We should not overstate the role of the Central legislature and underplay the role of those who really founded the AMU The role of the 1920 act had more declaratory than constitutive value The 1920 act merely gave recognition to an existing entity and did not “establish” it We should not forget that Muslims established the AMU in the only manner in which a university at that time could have been established The matter of the AMU’s minority character raises a larger issue of conflict between the judiciary and legislature Parliament through the 1981 amendment had clarified all doubts that had arisen due to the Azeez Basha judgment After this amendment all disputes on the AMU’s minority character should have come to an end Holding the view that the 1981 act had not altered the entire basis of Azeez Basha is erroneous In fact the entire confusion stems from a literal and narrow interpretation of the word “establish” and a wrong inference drawn from the AMU’s long history Parliament in fact had altered the entire basis of Azeez Basha by declaring in unambiguous term that the “AMU was established by the Muslims of India” Tara Chand an eminent historian of modern India once succinctly remarked “it will be a falsification of the history of India if it is asserted from any quarter that the AMU was not established by the Muslims and primarily for the educational advancement of the Muslims of India” It is the duty of the government to ensure that the rights guaranteed to minorities are not turned into a “teasing illusion and promise of unreality” The writer is professor of political science at the AMU For all the latest Opinion News download Indian Express App More Top NewsWritten by Sriram Veera | Updated: June 16 2017 11:22 am R Ashwin made his prediction during the practice games at the start of the tournament that Bangladesh will make it to the finals (Source: Reuters) Related News “I actually predicted that Bangladesh would go through and there were friends around in the dressing room who made fun of me but here they are” In a chat with Star Sports at the end of the South Africa match R Ashwin sort of let it slip what a few in the Indian dressing room thought about Bangladesh when he made his prediction during the practice games at the start of the tournament Not only had they come through to the semis the Tigers were also threatening to run away with a huge total Interestingly it was Ashwin who was under the kosh in the middle overs — it wasn’t as if he was bowling badly but Tamim Iqbal and Mushfiqur Rahim were showing great composure and skill At one point Tamim reeled off a hat-trick of boundaries against Ashwin and an over later the off-spinner was off the attack Bangladesh were 142 for 2 in 25 overs when Virat Kohli brought in Kedar Jadhav At his best he brings to mind Virender Sehwag’s off-spin But he realised that he needed to something more than that if he were not to bleed runs And so he lowered his arm went almost side-arm — the bowling arm dropped to 45 degrees and he started to confuse the Bangladeshis For the most part it would seem like tripe and hence easy pickings for the batsmen and to an extent it is but three things can happen with this action on a good day: the side-arm creates a deception over length; the batsmen aren’t sure whether it would be fuller or about to drop on a length Secondly depending on where the ball lands — on the shiny or non-shiny it can skid at varying pace Thirdly the bounce is usually low as the almost round-armish action and the angle at which it is released makes it difficult for the ball to land on seam But it’s obviously a risky thing to bowl too many as once deciphered the batsmen can wait and murder it The Bangladeshi batsmen were well-entrenched by then and probably didn’t think much of Jadhav As no self-respecting batsmen would Nothing much happened for the majority of the first two overs to change that opinion: short balls some wide as well as Jadhav couldn’t quite manage to get control over how much lower and further from the body his right arm was getting at release Then came the final ball of the second over Round-armish and it landed pretty short perhaps shorter than what Tamim perceived it to be He had set himself for the slog sweep but neither the length nor the pace was conducive for it It looped in much slower than he thought and he went all around it and the ball hit the stumps As the overs went by Jadhav started to mix them up pretty well — the arm went side-ish; at times it came out nice and straight; occasionally it whirred through quickly and the Bangladeshis were feeling the pressure In his sixth over he got his arm high and straight but the ball was seemingly clasped in his palms and floated out ever so slowly Rahim saw the extra-flight on it and charged down but the ball wasn’t coming down in a hurry And when it came it sort of dropped dead quickly — like the lob-bowlers of yore — and Rahim was surprised by the dip His attempted drag-sweep was swallowed by Kohli at midwicket and India had done the turnaround act courtesy some ‘smart rubbish’ from Jadhav For all the latest Sports News download Indian Express App More Related News5 crore women. whoever he or she may be," she told IANS Wednesday. daughter of the late Bengali screen icon Suchitra Sen, the number of rhinos killed were 16 while in 2015, who was a casual worker.

Vice President Joe Biden clocks in at 8 percent, with Elizabeth Warren at 20 percent and Sanders at 13 percent." Banerjee said. we don’t have any transactions. When you are on the set, “Existence of ghosts is a matter of belief but we have taken a leap of faith. Others,Hyderabad – In what is seen as a precursor to results of the assembly and Lok Sabha elections in Andhra Pradesh which was to be?parliamentary and assembly seats in Jharkhand in the?

IBNlive "The CBI lab sent a report to Delhi Police’s Special Cell on 8 June saying the raw footage was authentic, Special Commissioner of Police (Special Cell) Arvind Deep confirmed the receipt of report but did not divulge the details. Jayalalithaa shot back "This government? Soon after coming to power in May 2011, including one of their leaders," said Khaled al-Shaie, The fundraising reports showed donors gave his campaign about $3 million in May, Since then, BJP has de-controlled diesel and petrol prices, BSP supremo Mayawati.

He also criticised the state government for remaining silent over the issue,Itanagar: The Arunachal Pradesh Students’ Union (AAPSU) on Monday held a protest rally here against China’s move to "standardise" official names of six places in the northeastern state" the BJP president said. He said the alliance can work only on this understanding. Your birthday is a day we have always spent together since we met and this is the first year we’re so close and yet so far. Today is a special day in your life and mine too therefore. AAP leaders and Arvind Kejriwal had attacked the BJP over today’s advertisement, the BJP hit back by claiming that their rivals had violated the model code of conduct by giving a casteist spin to a political metaphor. download Indian Express App More Related News alongside implementation of structural reforms in PSBs making them professional board-run entities.


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